Religion and Theology

Religion and Theology



Managing donor relations is of great importance in firms and individuals so as to maintain the flow of benefits from the latter. Most of the techniques of maintaining the relationship employ gratitude as the sole way of retaining the benefits, as McLeish (2010) suggests. The paper will employ Weinstein information to avail details regarding tactics for managing links with donors.

Managing donor relations

According to McLeish (2010), one of the modes of retaining donors is promptness. Here, the beneficiaries must always be fast in thanking the donors in case of any favor or help they receive. Appreciating the donations shows respect to the sacrifice they have made in making sure they contribute all they can afford, thereby preceding all other expenses and commitments they have to take care of. The morale and willingness to donate are what keeps the donors around for long. Another way of keeping the donors around is repetition. The individuals receiving the donation must be keen to ensure they regularly keep in touch with the donors and repetitively thank them for the donations they give, whether small or immense. Doing so, as McLeish (2010) notes, keeps the donors in touch and gives them morale to continue donating. Moreover, it gives them the time to get to know the beneficiaries better and comprehend of other better ways of helping. The show of gratitude should be an ongoing process, whenever the donations are given out.

Notably, some of the donors widely work online and deliver the donations through the same means. Consequently, the online presence can be of great importance in keeping the donors around for long. Through this, they can promptly receive the gratitude online. Moreover, the online presence allows the beneficiaries to access the website or social network pages of the donors. Here, according to McLeish (2010), they can illustrate how grateful they are in case the donations come online, so as to keep the trend moving. It is also the best way of maintaining contact with donors that are hardly available for physical presence and contact.

Besides, as McLeish (2010) observes, every donor will always want to be sure that the donations they give are used for their intended goals. Notably, transparency can be a sure way of keeping the donors around for long. The donors must be updated on the progress of the working of the donations. A donor will promptly terminate the donations if they realize that the contributions do not tackle the assignment and objectives. Being transparent instills trust in the donors; hence they are motivated to hang on.

Moreover, being transparent shows respect and gratitude for the donations. Another likely way of retaining the donors, as suggested by McLeish (2010), is through showering them with gifts from time to time. Such gifts may be the fruits of the works of the donations. Much as the gifts might of small value.


Some of the things we do to please donors can appear so little, but they go a long way in showing how you are grateful and thankful for the immense support they offer. The presents are also a demonstration of love for the donors because of the support they give the firms and individuals. This little illustration of love can work wonders in retaining the donors for long.


McLeish, B. J. (2010). Successful marketing strategies for nonprofit organizations: Winning in

the age of the elusive donor. John Wiley & Sons.


Islamic mysticism


The Islamic culture has special practices and norms, mostly meant to keep the Muslims together. Some of the issues in Islam correspond to those in Christianity. Therefore, this article dwells on the sources of Islamic information, role of various characters, and the divisions of the culture.


The three primary sources of Islamic mysticism, according to Graham (1993), are the Quran, Sunnah, and Consensus. The Quran is the universal religious literature for Muslims. The Quran is alienated into chapters which are called “suras”, and subsequently separated into verses which are referred to as “ayas” (Amanze, Nkomazana & Kealotswe, 2010). It is believed to contain the revelation from God and forms the basis of Islam. It is deemed to have been the verbal revelation of God to His prophet, Muhammad, through His angel Gabriel, who they call Jibril. The Quran contains the information concerning God’s message to Muhammad through the years that the prophet lived on earth. The Islamic traditional narrative states that the Quran was written by Muhammad’s companions who played the role of being his scribes during the period he lived. They are said to have been his mates during that time. The “writers”, as Graham (1993) asserts, are believed to have consistently been following Muhammad’s teachings and revelations and further noting them down, which they would later compile to come up with the Quran.

The Sunnah, according to Graham (1993), consists of taped verbal records of the sayings, works, and teachings of Muhammad, the Islamic prophet. It consists of specific Islamic terms, silent approvals, practices, and habits. Muslims consequently adhere to these principles in performing their religious rituals and living according to the will of God (Armstrong & Rogers, Spotswood Collection, 2000). The individuals consider Muhammad the best example of a life well lived. Ijma, the Islamic consensus shows the principles universally accepted by the Muslims. Graham (1993) summarizes that it deals solely with matters related to the Islamic law, Sharia. Moreover, it incorporates any issues that are of interest to those that follow Islam. It highlights the most crucial matters that are by the Islamic religion and culture.

Notably, the Quran acknowledges the role played by Mary, who was the mother of Jesus. It elaborates the life and experiences of Mary, who together with her husband Joseph, took the primary role in bringing up Jesus. The Quran, as Graham (1993) notes, states that God created Mary and took it upon Himself to protect Mary and her children from Satan, who was expelled from God’s mercy. She found the favor of God who ensured a safe upbringing for her, in the hands of Zechariah. She, later on, bore Jesus, with the good news of the child to be born conveyed by the angel. Moses, on the other hand, also played an integral part in constituting the Quran. Referred to the Muslims as Musa, Moses is considered one of the prophets of God in the Quran (Berkey, 2003). He is deemed a descendant of Joseph, who is called Yusuf in the Islamic religion. In the Quran, Moses is acknowledged for playing the top role of reinstating the freedom to the chosen sons of God, the Israelites. Despite facing a couple of constraints in his role, he enjoyed many fetes of victories (Crockett, 2011).

It is also to Moses that God gave the Torah, which the Muslims consider to be a spiritual book (Gonzalez, 2006). Consequently, manuscripts of the Torah have been carefully preserved by the Muslims, as it contains the laws revealed to Moses by Allah, the creator. However, they consider the power of the Quran to be more than that of the Torah since it is God’s revelation to His prophet Muhammad, according to Graham (1993). Notably, in spite of the slight difference in Shi’ism and Sufism, they share a couple of similarities. Apparently, as Madelung (1985) notes, they both state in agreement on the fundamental aspects of Islam. Therefore, they share the same ideas in their beliefs. Moreover, they both follow the Quran in deploying their beliefs and practices.

Consequently, Gilsenan (1982) affirm that both Shi’ism and Sufism base their workings on the fundamental guidelines of the Islamic religion. Besides, they follow the same leadership claims, with the aspect of succession uniform between the two sub-religions of Islam. Moreover, both Shi’ism and Sufism follow and abide by the rules, rites, and principles coherently stated in the Quran. They, as Madelung (1985) affirms, adhere to the same guidelines in deploying their roles in the society and the general mode of undertaking their religious rituals and practices. This forms the basis of similarity between the two patterns of the Islamic religion.


Islam has a rich history, with few aspects resembling those in Christianity. Notably, there are two divisions in Islam, which are more or less the same. The only differences arise in the way the two divisions of Islam perceive the successor of God’s prophet, Muhammad, upon his death. Shi’ism recognizes Ali to have been the successor of Muhammad, while Sufism considers Abu Bakr, according to Madelung (1985).


Madelung, W. (1985). Nasir al-Din Tusi’s Ethics: Between Philosophy, Shi ‘ism and Sufism.

Undena Publications.

Amanze, J., Nkomazana, F., & Kealotswe, O. N. (2010). Biblical studies, theology, religion, and philosophy: An introduction for African universities. Eldoret, Kenya: Zapf Chancery.

Armstrong, K., & Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. (2000). Islam: A short history. New York: Modern Library.

Berkey, J. P. (2003). The formation of Islam: Religion and society in the Near East, 600-1800. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Crockett, C. (2011). Radical political theology: Religion and politics after liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gilsenan, M. (1982). Recognizing Islam: Religion and society in the modern Arab world.

Gonzalez, M. A. (2006). Afro-Cuban theology: Religion, race, culture, and identity. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Nasr, S. H. (2003). Islam: Religion, history, and civilization. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. ASSICNMENT 1…FDR 440

Raven, C. E. (1953). Natural religion and Christian theology. Cambridge [England: University Press.

Wickham, C. R. (2002). Mobilizing Islam: Religion, activism, and political change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press.



British and French role in dividing the Arabic world


A couple of centuries ago, the Arab world were a substantial empire, united under one empire by some reasons, despite the multiple ethnic compositions of the Arab world. The coexistence of the communities that formed part of the humongous Ottoman Empire was characterized by peace and cooperation, with the leaders taking much of the coordination role of keeping the unity of the empire.

Effects of colonial rule

However, at the moment, the region is highly demarcated with political and territorial boundaries all over, as Shaw and Shaw (1977) note. The boundaries have since brought an end to the peaceful coexistence of the communities, dividing the once united Islamic fraternity into different countries that exist at the moment. Much of this was as a result of the French and British influences in the region. Therefore, the article aims at illustrating the great role that Britain and France in dividing the once united Ottoman Empire.

Considering the history of colonization, as ancient as it can ever be remembered, the British government applied the same methodology it had used earlier in the territories it had already conquered. Such included methods like treachery, that was widely used in evading and violating the terms of the treaties the governments signed (Nasr, 2003). In tracing the genesis of the present demarcation of borders, most recorded works will relate to the eruption of the First World War. Notably, the First World War was spiked by the race for European superiority among most of the influential powers at that time. The following race for arms, colonial ambitions, and formation of malicious alliances were the sole reasons behind the eruption of the First World War, which would begin in 1914 and run to 1919, claiming approximately twelve million lives, as stated by Shaw and Shaw (1977). Initially, Ottoman Empire chose to take a neutral stand in the happenings of the war. This is because, among other reasons, their political and military strength could not allow them to take sides in such an enormous conflict. Besides, the constant internal and external threats made the empire so much vulnerable (Raven, 1953). Notably, the financial influence of the Ottoman Empire was equally in peril, with a good sum of debts that they owed the European powers, and that could not be repaid any soon.

Concerning the world war, it had two warring alliance groups, the “allied forces” which consisted of France, Russia, and Britain, and the “central powers” that had Germany and Austria-Hungary. Consequently, as Shaw and Shaw (1977) accolade, the Ottoman Empire opted to join the central powers front after their prior efforts to side with allied forces were thwarted. The decision to accede the central powers, as noted Shaw and Shaw (1977), ignited a perfect response from the British government. Plans to have the empire dissolved were conceived to increase Britain’s territorial cover. The fact that the empire also lay in the middle of India and Egypt, which had earlier on been subdued by the British, was also a catalyst in the intentions of Britain conquering the Ottoman Empire.

The best way they could readily land the territory was to make the subjects resistant to the emperor and the system. The Arab revolts would later form the basis of the present demarcation of boundaries in the once small and united Ottoman Empire. At the very same point, British and French diplomats met, Mark Sykes and Francois Georges-Picot in that order, to decide what would be the eternal fate of the Ottoman Empire.

Conclusion and recommendations

The French and British, as Shaw and Shaw (1977) summarize, divided the empire between themselves, binding the deal with a secret agreement. The scenario would later be unearthed by the Russian government in 1917. Consequently, the happening did not go down well with Sherif Hussein, with whom the British had made a different agreement. Wickham (2002) explain that untold tension subsequently followed the knowledge of the agreement between the Arabs and the Europeans.

The establishment of boundaries of the states that were formerly part of the united Ottoman Empire later on caused so much stir and a couple of challenges came up due to this demarcation, as Shaw and Shaw (1977) observe. Subtly, a lot of conflicts have arisen due to the borders. Apparently, there are numerous cases of wars and killings that come as a result of the frontier conflicts. Such cases have been experienced in such countries as Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq.


Summarily, the conditions in most countries in the Arabic world still have effects left by the colonial process. Peace in most countries that were formerly part of the Ottoman Empire is as luxurious as owning a private jet. The occurrences are all the results of the demarcation that was championed by the colonial activities of the French and British governments.


Shaw, S. J., & Shaw, E. K. (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume

2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975 (Vol. 11).

Cambridge University Press.

Graham, W. A. (1993). Traditionalism in Islam: An essay in interpretation. The Journal of

Interdisciplinary history, 23(3), 495-522. N.p.

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