School Psychology

School Psychology

The 10 Domains of National Association of School Psychologists

Domain 1: Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability

The psychologists utilize information technology and data collection techniques in rendering their services and implementing their programs. The use of data collection and analysis in school psychology gained prominence ten years ago. Data had to be utilized to check on the efficiency of the initiated teaching programs. School psychologists’ possess the know-how of different frameworks and modes of assessing and collecting information meant to identify potential and wants, initiating efficient services, analysing improvements and results. However, users are overpowered by the large amounts of information they obtain which at times they lack knowledge of utilizing to improve class works and directives ( Snyder, 2016).

The benefit of data-based decision making and accountability is that the teaching fraternity has enough information readily available to use in their classrooms to address the needs of their students. Some of the practices conducted in this domain are Systematic collection of information from different sources. The information is used to gain knowledge on issues affecting the learners and utilized to solve and help meet better student performance and behaviours. Evaluation of efficiency and necessity of modifying student programs is carried out. Learners are assessed to identify suitability for special instructive services.

Plan to Assess Current Abilities of School Psychology Staff for This Domain

The school administrators together with other institutional stakeholders will be able to monitor the capabilities of the school psychologists by the use of the School Psychologist Professional Practice Rubric. It enlightens on the duties of the institutional psychologist and informs the supervisors on the performance of the psychologists on dispensing his or her services to the students. The school psychologist uses the rubric to carry out a personal evaluation of performance. The results can be relayed to the supervisor for final assessment to help the psychologists know the critical areas he or she needs to work on to ensure personal growth and development. The rankings from the rubric should be supported by comprehensive facts (Duckworth, 2015).

This may be assessment educational statements, responses from learners, relatives, and individuals from society or even the institution’s staff. The rubric should be finalized by a competent supervisor with proper knowledge of psychological practices and practices and the ethics that need to be observed. When ranking the psychologists, attention needs to be paid to the type of activity he or she is involved in. The ranking from the supervisor bears more weight than the psychologist’s ranking and feedback from the institution’s workers. It helps the psychologists identify the areas that require improved performance (Vernon, 2014).

In data-based decision making and accountability, different categories are used in the ranking criteria which are based on different indicators, namely, highly efficient, effective, improvement needed and inefficient. For instance:



Index Highly efficient Efficient Improvement needed Inefficient
Adds to advanced assessment and data-based analysis on educational, moral and behavioral aspects.


The school psychologist evaluates information, results in interference, software designing, interference plans and convocations with guardians and teachers. The psychologist utilizes evaluation and information gathering modes that match the intended need. The school psychologist responds to opportune moments of adding to advancement in data-based decisions, but the additions do not add sufficient weight to the needs of the school. Here, the school psychologist does not possess the needed expertise in solving the student issues. He or she does not have the know-how needed in collecting and utilizing data.
Monitors improved educational, moral and behavioural aspects.


The school psychologist provides solutions to the learners and ensures efficiency in interference procedures. He or she aids in supplementing expertise improvement. Improvement is monitored in a mode that matches intended purpose. The school psychologists gather learners data used in informing important courses. The additions are inefficient in meeting the needs of the institution. The school psychologist does not have the know-how on gathering and utilization of institution-based information. He or she is not involved in the institution’s evaluation practices.


Domain 2: Consultation and Collaboration

School psychologists consult, collaborate and communicate effectively with the person(s), student relatives, academic institutions and other frameworks. They do this to enhance efficiency in dispensing their services. They advocate for changes in learners by effectively communicating with persons, educators or relatives. The school psychologists use their know-how in promoting academic excellence and coordinate with other stakeholders such other school administrators in creating an efficient educational surrounding. The rubric below rates the school psychologist performance (Snyder, 2016).

Index Highly efficient Efficient Improvement needed Inefficient
Coordination with other school staff


The school psychologist aid in developing the expertise of the staff through coordination. He or she avails proper instructions and coaches the staff members. The psychologist also utilizes ideas meant to give a helping hand to the learners, academic institutions, and the entire district, for instance, creating coordinative group convocations. The school psychologists effectively communicate with institutional school staff in a mode that meets the intended purpose. The psychologist works hand in hand with the educators to implement interventions by mentoring and availing response. They use conflict management action plans in their operation. The school psychologists apply minute ideas and innovations in expending their duties to the academic institutions. In this instance, the school psychologist does not have the know-how and abilities to coordinate efficient action plans in rendering their services. The psychologist does not take part in expertise development and excellence.
Coordination with guardians and relatives


The school psychologist aid in developing the expertise of the staff through coordination. He or she avails proper instructions and coaches the staff members. The school psychologists effectively communicate with institutional guardians and relatives in a mode that meets the intended purpose. For instance, he or she debates on the concerns of the guardians and outlays the action plans to be utilized on their premises. The psychologists fail to consult and show coordination and communication in expending their duties to the school and society at large. The psychologist does not have the necessary expertise in handling agreements with guardians and relatives. They do not place any priority on expertise development.
Coordination with agents in the society and other stakeholders.


The school psychologists utilize the proper frameworks in offering assistance to the learners, relatives, academic institutions, society and the district at large. The school psychologist communicates with the stakeholders in the society to gather data required for instructive programming. He or she provides sufficient report on the institution’s programs for the psychological services. The psychologist also efficiently coordinates in a transparent mode. The psychologists fail to show an implementation in expending their duties to the society at large. The school psychologists fail to have the required expertise in coordinating with the society stakeholders in dispensing their roles of offering efficient psychological services and consulting the societies agents.

Strengths of Consultation and Collaboration

First-Hand Information

Through consultation, the psychologists can obtain first-hand information from the interaction among people. This way, they can gain more knowledge and use the skills that have been obtained for effective running of the school. Getting first-hand information is essential for any person because there is a relation to all the details about a particular issue in the school (Edwards, 2015). Knowing the roots of the problem helps in obtaining solutions that can be used to solve that particular issue.

Concern from Stakeholders

Since people are aware of the problems relating to the society, they are therefore able to contribute solutions revolving around the issues. Involving some people is essential because it’s easier to gain more knowledge (Murphy, 2015).

Funding and Clear Communication

Since psychologists collaborate with the society, they are hence able to obtain funding from them. It is because the society becomes aware of the issues that are affecting their society and learning institutions. Any financial need the psychologists may need is easily attainable.

Weaknesses of Consultation and Collaboration

Some of the guardians and relatives may have little concern for the welfare of the students. They may thus avoid to effectively coordinating with the psychologists in dispensing their services to the students. At instances, the psychologists also may lack the proper knowledge meant to consult with the students, members of staff, the school administrators and the community at large (Murphy, 2015).

Domain 3: Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills

Psychologists coordinate with other parties in gathering and analysing information, initiating frameworks and implementing and evaluating services meant to nurture academic performance. They achieve this by initiating factually based interferences to boost learner’s performance from the analysed information (Snyder, 2016). They coordinate with other stakeholders such as principals and teachers to ensure student goal attainment in the whole district. They use facts derived from their thesis in formulating their instructions and course works. The rubric below is an effective representation of a rating framework for the school psychologists.

Index Highly efficient Efficient Improvement needed Inefficient
Contribution to practices relating to moral standards and academic practices in the whole school institution.


School psychologists perform the following tasks that are effective in the learning of the students.

They serve as school builders for the school.

They evaluate the programs that are being undertaken in the school to ensure there is effective performance and the school does not deviate from the set values.

They help in the development of the school in that there will be enhanced professionalism.


Psychologists contribute to activities that help in the roles of the school about the expectations.

They undertake research that helps the school select the best programs that are viable to that school.

Help the staff to learn new things and implement them to help in the running of the school.

Collect information and help in reduction of bullying in the school which will lead to the safety of the children.

The psychologists need to be more open and undertake more activities that will lead to efficiency in meeting the needs of the learning institution.

There should be more involved in activities that will lead to growth in moral standards and professionalism in the schools.

The school psychologists lack skills about setting of moral standards, the school learning system and emotions relating to the influence of the society.

They do not have knowledge and directives as to how to approach the topics of moral conducts, emotions and they are not concerned about learning of details that help in improvement of professionalism and growth in the learning institutions.

Contribution to interference modes of educational, moral and behavioural prospects. The school psychologists aids in the improvement of stakeholders expertise he or she acts to provide solutions to issues affecting the students. The psychologist also acts to fulfil the institution’s requirements.  The psychologist chooses action plans for academic institutions, and aids initiate intervention designs for the learners. The psychologist takes part in development pertaining intervention models. The psychologist does not Have the proper know-how in advancing and developing expertise. He or she is not familiar with the intervention action plan and models.
Contribution to emergency feedback and intervention models.


The school psychologist works hand in hand with the society stakeholders in providing comprehensive feedback to emergency occurrences. The school psychologist only responds to emergency occurrences as required by the academic institutions. The school psychologist only responds to emergency occurrences insufficiently. They take part in expertise development in regards to emergency response. The school psychologist does not possess the required know-how in responding to emergencies.


Strengths and Weaknesses of Interventions and Instructional Support to Develop Academic Skills


Coordination from the society’s stakeholders such as the parents, relatives and staff aids in responding comprehensively to crisis occurrences (Edwards, 2015). The intervention impact coordination and nurture support from members to help cater for the welfare of the students. It also brings nurtures professionalism in attending to the crisis.


The most dominant weakness lies in the professional capacity of the school psychologist. If the psychologist lacks the proper knowledge, he or she can coordinate with the available stakeholders in responding to emergency occurrences (Edwards, 2015).

Domain 4: Interventions and Mental Health Services to Develop Social and Life Skills

School psychologists safeguard the mental well-being of their students by carrying out personal counselling sessions, mentoring, supporting good behaviour and educating guardians. They coordinate good behaviour and proper mental state with educational targets for learners (Herrera, 2014).  They establish efficient frameworks to aid learners to initiate efficient abilities. They encourage behavioural dynamism at personal, mass level or institutional wide states. They aim to strengthen the students socially, emotionally and behaviourally. The strength of this domain is the support and intervention from the family members and staff to help support proper behaviour.

They do this by taking part in the students counselling sessions to safeguard the mental well-being of the students. The system is however impacted by the psychological expertise of the psychologists and the supervisor. Lack of proper knowledge will render poor management in counselling and expertise development.   This will over time reduce efficiency in rendering counselling services and practices. The psychologist rates his or her performance by the performance rubric. The supervisor rates the psychologist according to the responses from the students, teachers and other members of staff. The supervisors use this report in carrying out an assessment of performance and rating.

Domain 5: School-Wide Practices to Promote Learning

Psychologists have effective knowhow on educational frameworks, technological frameworks, institutional culture, and values to encourage education and mental state. They coordinate with other stakeholders to establish and initiate action plans to establish efficient educational surroundings for the students and others (Herrera, 2014). The psychologists utilize know-how from universally screened frameworks to aid note the needs for moral help services. They support programs and promote efficient virtues and learner progress. They place priority on coordinating with other institutional stakeholders by supporting educational targets for learners.

They aim to advocate positive programs that enhance performance in educational institutions. For academic performance to be realized, communication and integration between the students, teachers, community and the psychologist need to be necessitated. If the supervisor or psychologist fails to possess the expertise needed, he or she may fail to initiate the needed frameworks that will aid promote learning. The psychologist’s performance is assessed using the performance rubric using ratings from the educational stakeholders. The level of coordination with the stakeholders and implementation of innovations will aid enhance academic performance. The level to which the psychologist coordinates with stakeholders will determine the rankings in the psychologist’s performance.

Domain 6: Research Relating To Mental Ability to Recover From Depression or Misfortune

Psychologists have skills in discovering the mental abilities of people in institutions such as schools and other communities in support of prevention and strategies that can be used to respond to crucial or decisive points. Psychologists in schools can express their knowledge to enhance the development of activities to promote learning, safety measures and the well-being of individuals physically. Suitable measures are also being enhanced to facilitate learning. Practices that are done by professionals include employment of skills relating to risk and factors to curb the problems such as suicide among the youth, curbing of issues that occur in schools and responding to their cries and engaging in programs that promote peace in schools (Herrera, 2014).

Domain 7: Family-School cooperation activities

Psychologists in schools have skills on the systems in the family such as the strengths, weaknesses, their needs, and cultural activities. The learning of children is influenced by the family foundations and the setting of schools (Johnson, 2017). Psychologists work together with parents to make decisions relating to their children’s wellbeing, advocate for respect among different cultural backgrounds, advocating for quality methods of parenting children and creating bonds among families, learning institutions and the providers in the community.

Domain 8: Diversity in Development and Learning

Psychologists have skills relating to the differences in the abilities, disabilities and other contrasting features of the students. They can notice any differences that are available to different students. They can address the issues that relate to the differences in students and how they might influence other students. They hence can promote activities that are effective to the families which have different cultural backgrounds. There should be an encouragement of respect among different cultures and languages to achieve peace in communities (Johnson, 2017).

Psychologists are involved in activities such as consideration of the diversity of the strengths, social backgrounds and how to reduce conflicts which will, in turn, lead to peace and fairness in the society at large. The weakness in this domain is that the psychologist may be overwhelmed by the vast amount of data from the different students. The students come from different cultures, and it may pose difficulty to formulate programs that may integrate the practices. It’s, therefore, necessary for both the supervisor and the psychologists to have regular meetings and proper expertise. Lack of coordination and expertise between the two will limit the standard of services rendered. They may fail in integrating the diverse cultures with the psychological programs.

Domain 9: Research and Program Evaluation

Psychologists have sufficient skills that help them to be able to interpret the research undertaken and data that has been collected. They thus use the data of the research they have conducted to deliver quality services and to cooperate with others. They thus help the teachers to find information about the students. Thus they get useful information about the students in schools, delivering quality services (Johnson, 2017). The plans of the school activities are thus well established since there will be useful information from the data collected after the research have been done. They are hence able to promote effectiveness in the schools so that there will be high performance. The psychologists may fail to exhaustively utilize the research in dispensing quality practices and services if he or she lacks the necessary professionalism.

Domain 10: Legal, Ethical, and Professional Practice

Psychologists know about the development of the school relating to the history and background. They are aware of all the standards relating to ethics, legal activities, and professional setting. They, therefore, provide quality activities that are in collaboration with the set standards which promote respect and social justice and fairness. Communication and interpersonal skills, a sense of responsibility, technological advancement and innovation are hence enabled (Snyder, 2016).

Supervision is enabled, and hence the development of professionalism is established further which help the management of the school in easier handling of the students in school. Hence, it’s beneficial to be knowledgeable about the culture of the school so that there will be easier management. The school can be able to run within the set standards and will not deviate at all. The psychologists are supported by the institutional culture which has provisions that encourage ethical conduct and behaviour among the students. On the other hand, the psychologist may not have complete knowledge on integrating the provisions with psychological programs to expense services efficiently.

Leadership Strategies Meant To Supervise and Mentor School Psychologists

Supervision and Mentoring

Efficient adequacy and accountability in rendering services by all individuals is ensured through proper supervision and mentoring.  Supervision and mentoring are accomplished by orderly coordinated communication between psychology stakeholders that is the institutional psychologists and the individual overseeing the institutions psychological processes (Silva, 2016). This coordination promotes expertise development and exceptional expertise performance. However, some inhibitors act as obstacles to effective supervision and mentoring. They include:

Supervisory Systems

The supervisory systems, for instance, the educator assessment processes are implemented to be utilized by teachers. They do not suit the purpose of institutional psychology practice.

Supervisory Knowledge

Some of the supervisors assigned to monitor the school psychologists have little familiarity on the quality for institutional, psychological frameworks, services to be delivered and the abilities required to ensure proper service delivery in schools (Schargel, 2014).

Supervisor’s Responsibility

One supervisor may be in charge of a big number of school psychologists in a district. This may pose difficulty in supervising and mentoring as this may pose a burden and as a result offer inefficient supervision (Silva, 2016).

Supervisor’s Knowledge Ability

The lack of familiarity on the supervisors on the work done by the school psychologists may pose difficulty in reviewing and providing efficient, reliable response concerning the service standards in the district academic institutions (Schargel, 2014).

To render supervision and mentoring efficient, the school psychologists need to accomplish the following:

Meetings with Supervisors

The school psychologist needs to have time to time convocations with his or her supervisor to converse on the value and standards of services he or she is rendering to the students in the district (David, 2016).

Supervisor’s Assessment

The school psychologists should put together his or her different accomplishments on rendering his or her duties to the students for assessment by the overseer. If possible, the psychologist may opt to film videos as he renders his or her services to the students for supervisory assessment. The psychologists should gather information about the services rendered by the students and other stakeholders (David, 2016). This information should be compiled for presentation to the supervisor.

Sharing with the Supervisor

On convening with the supervisor, the institutional psychologist should discuss the National Association of School Psychologists qualities prioritizing on expert overseeing and coaching.

Seeking Out Expertise

If the supervisor lacks the proper knowledge and expertise in the roles and tasks of the school psychologist, the psychologists may look for another supervisor with more expertise and knowledge with the initial supervisor’s consent. He or she may act as a coach, but approval from the original supervisor must be granted to include a response from the latter supervisor in the report (David, 2016).

National Association of School Psychologist’s Membership

One ought to have to become a member of the districts national association of school psychologists and ensure he or she attends the annual meetings. They should consider volunteering on the association leadership positions within the district.

The effectiveness of the design is determined by:

Grants to School Psychologists

School psychologists are given some time away to upgrade their psychology expertise yearly to get more exposure and developmental training. On the other hand, individuals who are denied the opportunity to attend the developmental seminars stagnate on their knowledge and this limits on the standard of service rendered to the students. Psychology is a field that changes every day, and there is a necessity to receive more exposure to guarantee effectiveness in performance (Schargel, 2014).

Intern Supervision

Interns are overseen by psychological experts who regularly monitor their practices and overlook on their performance in rendering their services to the students. The interns work hand in hand with their supervisors to ensure concrete positive response and mentoring. The supervisor gets all the appropriate report changes to offset for overseeing obligations. On the other hand, interns who are not supervised by experienced supervisors only waste time filling their assessment reports rather than providing counselling or rendering their services to the institution (Silva, 2016). If this progresses over time, the next generation of psychologists will lack proper knowledge and expertise. This will slowly kill the quality of psychology service and soon render it inefficient.


To ensure efficiency in rendering psychological services, the psychologist needs to stimulate thinking and promote dynamism in delivering services. To enhance performance, the psychologist needs to consider the following: Coordinating comprehensive services by ensuring the services provided by the school psychologists are availed to every learner desiring them. They should offer continuous mental and academic services. The basis of their initiation and delivery is a necessity of the education organization and the society. The school psychologist should prioritize mostly on the needs of the learners. To promote coordinated, comprehensive services, the school psychologist needs to communicate with the institution’s committee and other stakeholders on failures impacting programs and culture in the institution.

They should analyse the resources available and assess the student necessities. A reassessment should be carried on the necessities observed and the analysed resources. The psychologists should initiate a course of action meant to satisfy the student needs. They should formulate and initiate their interpositions, analyse their results and record their achievements. They should record all their day to day journals on services dispensed. They should include duration used and the necessity for review.

They need to motivate their supervisors to put together vast information and present it to the district officers. They should notify the supervisors on the effects of information anticipation on government legislatures. They need to request the guardian’s support in advocating for accessibility of the institutional, psychological services. They should also train their supervisors on the scope of accountability and the duration utilized in providing better services. They should generate thoughts for bettering delegated tasks.

For the psychologists to be successful in improving their services:

The needs of the learners will act as the determinant factors of procedural assessments;

Academic performance shall be boosted by the coordination between the academic institutions working with the surrounding society in providing services for the learners;

The mental well-being of the learners shall be evaluated from time to time. The services shall be aimed at addressing the issues faced by the student and shall be deployed by the school psychologists in coordination with the society.

For Efficient service delivery, the school psychologists should perform in a virtuous reactive surrounding that prioritizes the welfare of the learners and teachers. A coordinative surrounding will aid the psychologists to encourage support for required services and cooperative surrounding.


David, S. (2016). Beyond goals: Effective strategies for coaching and mentoring. Routledge.

Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than the cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44(4), 237-251.

Edwards, L. (2015). Promoting a culture of wellness within the educational community: employing best practices with a comprehensive and integrated approach across the ten domains of competency within the field of school psychology (Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt State University).

Herrera, H. (2014). The role of the school psychologist supporting school-based mental health services: a comprehensive integration of the NASP practice domains in efforts to support systemic change in schools for the academic and socio-emotional well-being of students (Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt State University).

Johnson, J. L., Bahr, M. W., & Navarro, V. L. (2017). School Psychology and Cultural Competence: Room to Grow?. Educational Policy, 0895904817741542.

Murphy, R. L. (2015). Supporting systemic change: using teamwork and the ten domains of school psychology to encourage school-wide evolution in two highly diverse elementary schools (Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt State University).

Schargel, F. P., & Smink, J. (2014). Strategies to help solve our school dropout problem. Routledge.

Silva, A. E., Newman, D. S., Guiney, M. C., Valley‐Gray, S., & Barrett, C. A. (2016). Supervision and mentoring for early career school psychologists: Availability, access, structure, and implications. Psychology in the Schools, 53(5), 502-516.

Snyder, K. A. (2016). Using collaboration and data-based decision making to address students’ academic and social-emotional needs within a multi-tiered framework (Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt State University).

Vernon, P. E. (2014). Personality Assessment (Psychology Revivals): A Critical Survey. Routledge.

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