Behavior-Based Safety (BBS)

Behavior-Based Safety (BBS)

Instructions and Grading Rubric

This project addresses the application of the scientific methods of Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) to improving intervention. Pick a job at your place of work or a job that relates to this material, and discuss how the DO IT Method can aid in improving the behavior of employee(s).

The project is required to be a minimum of 500-600 words (or a minimum of 2 pages and a maximum of 4 pages) double-spaced. You should follow APA style and referencing guidelines and choose articles from journals available on the CSU Online Library database. You may also use any website as a resource.

The Ebsco Database (Business Source Complete) is the best source of journals for safety related articles. Students can access the CSU Online Library resources at the following link:

This project will be graded based on the CSU Grading Rubric for all types of papers. To view the rubric, click here.

CSU requires that students use the APA format in writing course papers. Therefore, the APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. A document titled CSU APA Guidelines Summaryis available for you to download from the Writing Resources Link, found in the Student Resources area of the MyCSU Student Portal. This document provides links to several internet sites that provide comprehensive information on APA formatting, including examples and sample papers.

Writing Center

Need someone to review your first essay response, paper, or do you have questions about APA? The Columbia Southern University Writing Center provides effective academic writing support via email or appointments by telephone. Writing Tutors at the Writing Center provide feedback on your writing at any stage of the writing process. You can submit a draft to the Online Tutor any time, any day, and from anywhere by submitting the Writing Center Request Form in the myCSU Student Portal. (Click the Online Forms tab. From the Online Forms page, click the Courses link. Select Writing Center Request.)

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Case Study – The Best Laid Incentive Plans

Organizational analysis will utilize the Bolman and Deal four-frame approach, which forces us to look at the organization through four distinctly different perspectives: the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic perspectives (frames). Each of these perspectives are covered in the Bolman and Deal text and you will need to read the assigned chapters in order to understand the different frames.

Each of us has a predominate frame in which we operate. This can be a dangerous practice if we are to be effective leaders. I have seen many managers fail because of the practice of operating in soley one frame. For example, some managers attempt to operate solely in the Human Resource frame (caring for the humanness of the employee) and ignore the Stuctural frame elements of quantitative goals and objectives, processes, and metrics. Others will concentrate on the Structural elements and ignore the Human Resource elements.

The strength of the Bolman and Deal four-frame analysis is in the ability to analyze an organization through a 360 degree (4-frame) perspective. This approach will stretch each of you and move you beyond your comfort zone (your predominate frame), but will develop you into stronger managers and leaders.

This week, you will need to:

– read the assigned chapters in the Bolman and Deal text to understand the Structural and Human Resource frames

– read the Session 8 lecture material

– take the Leadership Orientation self-test that is located in the “course materials” tab (this is to help you understand your predominate frame)

– read the case study “The Best Laid Incentive Plans” that is located in the “course materials” tab

– participate in the Discussion Questions.

Remember, this is about Organizational Analysis, it is not about offering solutions until all analysis is complete. Do not offer solutions yet, we still have two more frames (political and symbolic) to consider. This means do not use phrases like “what Hiram should have done”, “what the organization needs to do”, “what needs to happen”. I imagine this will be very difficult for some of you, but force yourself to refrain from considering solutions until you have the skills to gather all the information from all four perspectives. It kind of like an MD coming to a treatment plan after only taking a patient’s temperature. Let’s be good practitioners and not rush into remedies until next session.

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Marriage and/or Divorce Module 08 Written Assignment Custom Essay

Think of a book that you’ve read or even a movie you’ve watched that portrays some aspect of marriage and/or divorce. In 1-2 pages, briefly describe the book or movie while discussing its portrayal of marriage/divorce in regards to the different types of families described this module.

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The World Trade Center Towers, in history, were the very first two tallest buildings in the world. However, the former World Trade Center was a more massive complex comprising of seven different buildings in Lower Manhattan, in the United States. Besides, it featured the landmark twin towers that was opened on April 4, 1973, which were destroyed during the 9/11 terrorist attacks. These Twin Towers were the centerpieces of World Trade Center complex as each of them were on 110 stories namely the South and the North Tower, which provided a space for an office for about 430 companies and 35,000 people. Based on this information, this report will provide an evaluation of what these structures mean to the New York history, as well as how they are connected to the city and its people.
The Meaning of World Trade Center to the History of New York
The World Trade Center/Freedom Center has a significant meaning to the history of New York City. It makes this city to be known as a significant terrorist site in the world since there has never been such an attack in the history of New York and the entire United States. This is because, on the morning of September 11, 2001, the Al-Qaeda Islamic terrorists hijacked both the United Airlines Flight 175 as well as American Airlines Flight 11, and crashed them intentionally into these two main structures of the World Trade Center, in which they all collapsed within two hours . As a result, almost 2,606 died in these attacks including 71 law enforcement officers, 2,192 civilians, as well as 343 firefighters, and the ten hijackers who masterminded the attacks.
Also, the Freedom Tower is simply not another name for marketing or even another piece of real estate, but in both its name and design, it represents a symbol of New York City in its commitment to rise above the terrorists’ attacks. As a result, it has remained a significant memorial site in which most people could go to pay tribute to their fallen heroes . Moreover, it was a symbol of this City as well as the steadfast devotion of America towards progress and the future.
Additionally, it made this City to be a bustling hub Financial District of the entire world, which was considered as a dream come true. Besides, it was primarily dedicated to the “world peace through trade” concept. Moreover, seven years after the attack, Winthrop W. Aldrich, who was among the organizers of the exhibit, chaired a new state agency whose primary objective was to provide a permanent exposition of trade in New York. As a result, market research has shown this City could benefit more through modernization of its ports . Also, as a World Trade Center, it created more jobs and therefore made New York to grow and expand significantly. This is because more than 11,000 workers were employed to build this complex.
The Twin Towers plays a significant role in the history of New York City. It became more to the world as compared to how its architects, creators, as well as benefactors could ever imagine of. It was created with the hope of unifying this City since it would later become the home of the lower Manhattan’s United Nations. However, the former Twin Towers was faced with several problems in both its acceptance and the construction, but ultimately became the most terrorism iconic symbol within the entire United States, and eventually reshaped the whole United States. The reconstruction of The World Trade Center 1 will never in history exemplify a similar importance did by Twin Towers, but the hearts of most Americans will often lie at the Ground Zero . Besides, in the history of New York, The World Trade Center is considered to be the first globalization attempt, and for the effects it has, this City will be forever thankful and forever regretful for its existence.
Additionally, the idea of having the World Trade Center was first introduced in the year 1946 just immediately after the Second World War ended. The Legislature of New York State appointed Winthrop Aldrich who by that time was a Rockefeller family member and the Chase Bank Chairman, to look at the feasibility of the project. It was formerly projected be a vicinity of a five-million-square-foot that was supposed in displaying traded goods from across the globe. The pure monstrosity of these buildings, however, was never conceived until later . It would be then known as a site for international trade as well as exemplifying the very reasons for the existence of New York City in addition to its roots to a union of several countries across the globe.
Moreover, the construction of these buildings began in 1966 with Minoru Yamasaki, American Architect was famously known for putting the desires of his clients first before his desires. However, the risk of constructing these buildings was within the architect chosen, as this architect had only ever constructed a tall building with twenty-eight stories before this ambitious project. Moreover, the World Trade Center was to become a new economic as well as physical center for the downtown Manhattan. Before its construction, it was usually imagined to be unusual and giant to downtown Manhattan and not the same to the City of New York . Importantly, it was anticipated to make the New City become an international relations symbol as well as the actual dependence on globalization.
Although the idea of having the World Trade center seemed exciting, it was hated by the local New Yorkers, particularly on building it in the lower Manhattan. However, the Port Authority of New York City concluded that these buildings would significantly benefit the public as it would be the most extensive real estate development in the world and was necessary for importing and exporting trade besides being a platform for broad immigrants in fueling the economy . Moreover, it would boost the economy of the whole New York City as it would provide most of its square footage to people who would like venturing into small businesses.
Besides, the World Trade Center would later become the most prominent single project of urban development in history. However, they were constructed in the most inconsiderate manner as it faster became the most destructive and the most massive renewal urban projected ever created in New York history. It entirely wiped out everything within an area of about sixteen-acre, which destroyed almost two hundred structures including more than eight hundred small businesses. As a result, the City of New York for the coming five years would undergo an intense turmoil as it was losing millions of taxes, particularly in property taxes. Furthermore, thousands of people lost their jobs, several thriving businesses also shut down, as well as having constant protesters who were preventing the continuation of the construction. Most of these protesters became very upset to the extent of holding a funeral mock of “Mr. Small Businessman” , a famous mascot for the movement of protesters. Perhaps the primary challenge came from the agents of real estate, who perceived the construction of World Trade Center as a competition that is unfair, a situation that made them decline in participating in selling out of the units.
The towers started being constructed on 6th August 1968 and took almost three years for the completing ironwork alone on the building, as well as nearly two years for a noticeable amount of progress to be seen. The construction on the North Tower was completed on December 23, 1970, and the South Tower was completed seven months later. In both instances, New York City held a “topping out” ceremony, in which the U.S. flag was raised above these buildings. Besides, some workers were remembered and even honored. However, eight workers died in total while constructing the towers.
Importantly, the construction of these towers after a decade started shaping the history of New York City and the commotion concerning their dishonesty was now becoming a forgotten case. All of a sudden, there was an impressive amount of interest from the New Yorkers on these buildings as they were now thriving. Moreover, their anticipation openly increased as their constructions were being continued . Finally, the South Tower was about 1,362 feet high while the North Tower was about 1,368 tall, which made them in becoming the ever tallest building in the history of New York City, and for some time they remained the world’s tallest buildings.
Also, other researchers including Farrell (2017) argue that the Freedom Tower plays a significant and symbolic role of the New York City, which is not its symbolic height. Next to the top of the building’s spire are the xenon lamps that are responsible for lighting a sweeping beacon as well as flashing the “N” letter in a Morse Code. This idea came a decade ago as a result of the desire of creating a code light ships beacon reminiscent that flashed with the aim of identifying their ports because ships were entering their harbors. N stood for New York while B stood for Boston. Besides the symbolic gesture, the beacon was meant for recalling the beams and past Maritimes of New York as a welcome of a safe-harbor that would be visible as far as 27 miles away . There were as well several functions that would be performed by spire including digital communication and broadcasting.
How World Trade Center Buildings are connected to the People of New York City
There are various ways in which the World Trade Center/Freedom Tower connects to the people of the New York City. After the fall of Twin Towers and Ground Zero was ultimately cleared, the New York people believed that ambitious and thoughtful urban design could result in the city being whole again. In that site that is still known by several people as Ground Zero, there are two towers opened for conducting business, the 4WTC, a new sublime office construction to the east, as well as the 7WTC, a smaller building completed in 2006 and located north of the site.
Additionally, with the killing of nearly 3000 people on that 9/11 marked both national and international disaster, and so resulted in the retributions and wars that follow the incidence of that day. Besides, the people of New York considered it as a local catastrophe that had an immediate political impact. This is because it redeemed the unpopular mayor of New York, Rudy Giuliani, as well as opening the door for the Mike Bloomberg election, who was the second consecutive Republican in this city . There were as well the hellish consequences for the economy and infrastructure in downtown. It was an on streets, buildings, infrastructure, and tunnels, and resulted in both urban and political repercussions.
Pataki, who in those years characterized with illiberalism and terror insisted that nothing should ever be built again where these towers stood as they would usually be a lasting and reminding memorial for those that New York City lost in that 9/11. It was among the very first with several political decrees without direct urban altogether salutary consequences. From the beginning, the Freedom Center could be a living site, which as well memorized the dead. It is because it had to make their deaths visible at a demagogic measure.
In the Ground Zero and the museum, there is a grief pandemonium as the dead are deafening, a mausoleum with complete human remains escalators, mass murder recordings, as well as a gift shop in which the commodified massacre fetish are filling the shelves. It is worth noting that these images connect to the people of New City through metaphor, death, and symbol, as well as through politicians for power . Indeed, The World Trade Center is a mass grave, battlefield, corruption and capital mud-caked trough, and importantly, a place where New York people go as well as come to work.
Additionally, the Freedom Tower holds a warmer place in the heart of the American people. For instance, because of this Freedom Tower, both the Governors of New Jersey and New York, Chris Christie and Andrew Cuomo, are sharing the Port Authority control of New Jersey and New York, as well as owning the 16 acres that its surface was used in building the tower. Besides, even the former President, Barrack Obama, stopped in 2011 at this site with the intention laying wreath just a few days after ordering the killing of Osama Bin Laden, and also signed the beam of Freedom Tower in 2012 . All these indicate how the World Trade Center is connected to the people of New York.
The Freedom Tower base, which is also its most significant burden, as it portrays how the World Trade Center is connected to the people of New York City. The base is made of metal and concrete with a two-hundred-foot cube covered with thick glass as well as stacked about twenty stories high, which was majorly constructed for absorbing and surviving any future terrorist attack. Moreover, the PA proclaimed in 2006 that it would never allow its staff in returning to work in this building, arguing that the horror and trauma they had already suffered at Ground Zero is enough. Moreover, some including Chris Rock in the usual “Saturday Night Live” monologue suggested the building to renamed “Never-Going-in-There Tower” but was never sponsored.
Furthermore, on the Memorial Plaza of the World Trade Center, just a few yards from the Freedom Tower and separated by the force of its base and square footprints of the former Twin Towers are each surrounded by parapets with the names of the 9/11 victims. More than fifteen million pilgrims have visited this place, and much more would still come. This implies that it is a sign of paying tribute to the splendid, solemn beauty of the plaza, which is considered by many as a perfect Ground Zero piece as well as a stroke of urban genius . Moreover, after thirteen years of thoroughly manned checkpoints in addition to chain-link fencing, human beings could now easily walk in through the Freedom Tower’s sixteen acres from the city streets surrounding them.
Also, both the museum and the memorial have had a mixed fortune connections to the people of New York City. The museum that opened in May 2014 has elicited various criticisms for its tacky gift and the exhibitions but has attracted several visitors. Its main spaces of the exhibition are lying down at bedrock while facing the wall that prevents the Hudson River from flooding the lower twin towers level. Besides, it is considered as among the foremost original World Trade Center evocation that is remaining on site, and the only place where the people of New York City feels the hope, sadness, as well as civic righteousness that is being inspired by the new World Trade Center.
The future of culture is as well another way that the Freedom Tower connected to the people of New York City. Several cultural institutions including the Drawing Center, Signature Theatre, and the New York City Opera had already visualized a move downtown. However, during the process of planning, Pataki proclaimed that nothing would be tolerated in that place, particularly anything that could easily denigrate New York, freedom, or America . Moreover, this censorship threat was more than enough on sending most prospective tenants packing. It is because the site was still entitled to a cultural institution, but where it is located between the PATH terminal and 1WTC guarantees challenges for construction.
Finally, by 2016, the Freedom Center evoked other fresher troubles including many income inequalities, the financial sector impunity, a corrupted state government beyond being redeemed, a Congress incapable of doing anything, and an influx of tourists, which is the city’s flipside of pacification and gentrification . Eventually, the Freedom Center lesson is that an urban scheme cannot just be plugged into a grid and wait for the outcome. There must be solidarity, community, as well as civic virtue.
Conclusively, the new World Trade Center has resulted in the growth of private arrangements while anguishing public infrastructure. It is because billions of billions of private cash have been hoarded while the public dollars have been significantly drained. Besides, the New York of today has modestly improved its street planning with one great tower, an unworthy memorial, an acceptable museum, a scandalous transit hub, and anytime sooner there will be more new places to shop from.

Charney, Igal. 2014. “Transforming a tower: how did the One World Trade Center eclipse the Freedom Tower?.” Area 46, no. 3: 249-255. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Farrell, Matthew. 2017. “Fifteen Years of Rebuilding the World Trade Center.” Cornell Real Estate Review 15, 66-67. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
MARTIN, GENE, and JOHN RITZ. 2015. “skyscrapers: visions of strength.” Technology & Engineering Teacher 74, no. 6: 16-22. Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Palladino, P., and T. Young. 2013. “Fight Club and the World Trade Center: On Metaphor, Scale, and the Spatio-temporal (Dis)location of Violence.” Journal For Cultural Research 7, no. 2: 195. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Rosenthal, M. Sara. 2013. “The End-of-Life Experiences of 9/11 Civilians: Death and Dying in the World Trade Center.” Omega: Journal Of Death & Dying 67, no. 4: 329- 361. Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).

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Judicial Legitimacy and Public Perceptions of Courts Custom Paper

Judicial Legitimacy and Public Perceptions of Courts.

JUD – Kritzer. “The Impact of Bush v. Gore on Public Perceptions and Knowledge of the Supreme Court.” (pages 500-506)
Gibson and Caldeira. Forthcoming. “Has Legal Realism Damaged the Legitimacy of the U.S. Supreme Court?” Law & Society Review.
Cann and Yates. 2008. “Homegrown Institutional Legitimacy: Assessing Citizens’ Diffuse Support for their State Courts.” American Politics Research 36: 297.
* Gibson, Caldeira, & Hoekstra. 1998. “On the Legitimacy of National High Courts.” American Political Science Review 92: 343.

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Research Project

Research Project


To submit your project, scroll to the bottom and click on the name of the assignment in the left corner.

Your 5 article research project for this class is due at the end of Week 3 — Sunday at 11:59 PM Eastern Time.  Upload to the Assignment link. Submit as a Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) file or as an .rtf file ONLY.

Here is how you complete your project for Week 3:

Using your reference list and project template from week 2’s assignment, complete the project by adding a 250-word summary of each article under its reference. You need to summarize each article factually, using your own words, and refrain from using quotes and opinion. In addition, please make sure your sources do not include encyclopedias, book reviews or article citations.

Have another person proof your project. Please use Times New Roman 12 point font.

If you need help with references, I highly recommend using  Select “APA” from the menu on the left, and then your type of source. Plug in the information and it will create the references for you.

Here is the rubric I will use to grade your paper:


POS 1041 – Research Project
Content—all areas are addressed 80 points total Possible points Earned




Summarized 5 articles on approved topic 20    
Each article is summarized in own words and accurately represents the author’s point of view 30    
Each article is of scholarly content and is taken from theKeiser University library 10    
Each article is 250 words minimum 20    
Mechanics 20 points total      
APA format is used for each bibliographic reference, and paper format 10    
Rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling  are followed. 10    
Subtotal   /100  
Late -5/day if applicable      
Total   /100 Comments:

It is YOUR responsibility to save your project to an external drive FREQUENTLY as you work on it. Computers crash, things happen, thus you need to have it on disk so you can still turn it in on time.


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New Media Interactivity

New Media Interactivity

Technologies are simply tools that form part of the new media and are used to converge, manipulate and send instant information. Technological tools like Photoshop are common in the manipulation of information and are powerful in changing real-life situations to appear differently to the target audience. During political campaigns, for example, the public is fed with numerous photos of the candidates in the contest most of which have been manipulated to change public’s perception, and it is hard to tell what is true and what is false by looking at the images. Technologies are tools that have been used to achieve convergence. All information irrespective of its format including audio, text, and video can be found in one place, and it is the internet (Eadie, 2009). It, therefore, means that the tools make it possible for communication that reaches millions of people without worrying about the distance or the cost of broadcasting the information. Finally, tools like blogs and social media have allowed the communication of messages to be instant. The content creator can send the content as soon as he or she is done with typing without having to wait for publishing to take like it was before the evolution of technologies.

The concept of the intercultural impact of new media increases the complexity of the statement that technologies are simply tools because the same tools have enabled people from different cultures across the world to develop shared meanings for the same content (Youmans & York, 2012). It, therefore, means that although their culture and beliefs influence content creators, the technologies have made it possible for recipients from different cultures develop a common understanding of the concept (Sabir, 2013). For example, a movie developed in an American setting is enhanced through technology tools and makes the viewers from different cultures to develop almost the same experience from watching the movie. A good movie will be rated as good globally and a boring movie is likely to receive criticism from across the world.


Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2009). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook (Vol. 1). Sage.

Sabir, M. (2013). Public media and multicultural globe. South Asian Studies, 28(1), 223.

Youmans, W. L., & York, J. C. (2012). Social media and the activist toolkit: User agreements, corporate interests, and the information infrastructure of modern social movements. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 315-329.


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The League of Nations

The League of Nations


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Read: Week 3 Learning Resources; The League of Nations (both). Watch Dr. John Merriman’s Lecture: Successor States of Eastern Europe.

Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the League. Why was it unable to cope with the problems of nationalism and the rising dictatorships in Europe? Was the League fatally flawed, or might it have coped if Hitler, Mussolini, et. al. had never existed?


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A Two-Front War

A Two-Front War.

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A Two-Front War
As in World War I, there was a marked difference in the character of fighting on the Western and Eastern fronts. Why do you think this was? What were Hitler’s goals with respect to the peoples and territories on the two fronts? How were these received? (As for his policies toward Jews, these will be best expressed in the Holocaust discussion.) What were the Allies’ respective goals, beyond defeating Hitler? Did any nations have goals that did not fit neatly with either the Axis or Allied goals? In brief, what was the whole war about?

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Difference between a DNP and a PhD in nursing

What is the difference between a DNP and a PhD in nursing? Which of these would you choose to pursue if you decide to continue your education to the doctoral level?

Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) is one of the major terminal professional degrees in nursing (Edwards, Rayman, Diffenderfer & Stidham, 2016). The program provides education in evidence based practices, system leadership and quality improvement. PHD in nursing on the other hand is another terminal professional degree in nursing and it deals with clinical, academic or scientific environment (Edwards et al., 2016).

The major difference between the two courses is the scope. There is an argument that both courses are equal and there is no one of them that is further or major the other one and graduate from both programs can work as nurse practitioners once they have earned all the credentials. Man DNP programs incorporate an NP specialization while in PhD prepared nurses must typically peruse a post graduate certificate for them to become an NP (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). The other difference between the programs is that for one to obtain a DNP someone must complete a clinical project that demonstrates intimate knowledge dealing with evidence based practices (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). The PHD on the other hand does not dwell on evidence based practice but rather focuses on original research and research methodology.

I love research a lot as discovering new things that can bridge the gap in the nursing field gives me the greatest satisfaction. Having this in mind therefore means that I would peruse PhD in nursing as my major terminal course to fulfill; my career goals as a nurse.





Edwards, J., Rayman, K., Diffenderfer, S., & Stidham, A. (2016). Strategic innovation between PhD and DNP programs: Collaboration,  collegiality, and shared resources.  Nurse Outlook (64), 312-320.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017). DNP Education.  Retrieved on October 3, 2017 from: http://www.


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