A television rating is a measure of how a program is popular. This is usually regarding the number and proportion of viewers. The score helps a broadcasting company to decide the amount of money to charge an advertisement in a specific program. For example, when putting an advert in a very highly rated program, which means that the program is watched by very many viewers, costs much money that placing the same advert in a low rated program. This is the information that rating of a program tries to establish. The score also helps the managers of the broadcasting industries to determine the best time to fix a program. This is with the aim of trying to reduce the competition that might be caused by another high rated program in another station (Nielsen, 2016). For example, fixing a program or a show on ITV at 8.30 pm gives it higher chances of becoming better rated than putting the same show at 7.30 pm since at this time it is prone to face too much competition from a program on BBC.
The overall process of collecting data to be used in rating is very complex. When the word TV rating is mentioned in the United States, everybody thinks of another work which is Nielsen. This is because of the reason that the national service for measurement of TV industry in USA and Canada is conducted by a company known Nielsen Media Research (Webster & James, 2015). The principle that this company uses, in simple words involves using a similar technology as the one used by opinion polls to predict the outcome of an election called as the statistical sampling technique.
In general, this process involves creations of a sample size usually referred to as a sample audience, then counting how many audiences watch each TV program. The number from this sample is then extrapolated to represent the number of people watching the programs in the entire population. This information is collected from TV set meters that this research organization installs in TV sets that have an agreement with the company of becoming the sample audience. The main stakeholders involved in the rating process are the audiences, who are the general public owning a TV set, and the rating company (Nielsen, 2016). The company is also planning to start counting the viewers that are shifting to online streaming forms, and also it planned on using a Total Content Rating which faced a lot of challenges from other platforms
This rating data is important to broadcasters as it helps them decide which shows to continue showing and which ones they should cancel. This is because a program might have millions of viewers but it does not provide profit to the company, therefore, the need for withdrawing it (Webster & James, 2015). The data is also essential to the broadcasters as it helps them determine the amount of money to charge an advert placed in a program.
A TV show can either be ranked as good, fair, or bad. Ratings are usually given in number forms which represent the percentage of people viewing that show. These numbers are generally from 0.1 to 5.0. The bigger the numbers a TV show is rated with, the better the rating. When advertisers are determining which airtime to buy, they do so according to the ranks of that program (Webster & James, 2015). The better the score, the more expensive the airtime will be.
A designated market area can be defined as the area or region in which people get the same television and radio programs and options. According to Altbach and Philip, (2013) In the United States, the biggest DMAs from number ten to number one are: Atlanta, Houston, Washington, San Francisco Dallas, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York and serving more than seven million homes in the most massive DMA to two million. Apparently, the air market in New York is better than that in Birmingham, households in the smallest. However, it is more expensive in New York. Birmingham is ranked at position 45 out of 210 DMAs
Altbach, Philip G. “Rankings Season Is Here.” The International Imperative in Higher Education, 2013, pp. 81-88.
Nielsen, Jakob. “The Nielsen ratings.” Proceedings of the third annual ACM conference on Hypertext – HYPERTEXT ’91, 2016.
Webster, James G. “Nielsen Ratings.” The International Encyclopedia of Communication, 2015