Terrorism Crisis Management
Emergency preparedness may be defined as pre-impact activities, which establish a state of readiness to respond to an extreme event, or events, which could affect the lives of a community. It thus determines organizational readiness in minimizing the adverse impacts of such events either using active responses for safeguarding the health and safety of the inhabitants or by the integrity and functioning of physical structures as outlined. The reason for selecting the issues of terrorism is because there are myriad cases of terrorism arising from various countries and regions worldwide. The issues of terrorism have tremendously increased especially when considering the countries at war. For instance, terrorism within the countries such as Afghanistan and Somalia are widely rated, and their effects are adverse. In this regard, there is need to develop a plan that may be utilized in managing the crisis arising from terrorist activities within different regions.
The literature that has otherwise stimulated the study of this topic are many, and the variety ranges from the recorded aspects of terrorism activities in various worldwide regions, documentaries on these areas of terrorism activities, the culture and how the development of the culture is. For instance, the issue of gun control in America and other countries is a matter discussed and documented in various literature especially because of the different effects the same is providing to the community. In this report, the research provides enough information concerning the issues at hand, and the paper approaches the same by agreeing with the literature and how the terrorism management of the crisis has previously been done, but also providing a different approach and various concepts in managing the same for effectiveness in the given scenario. This is because, regardless of the applied approaches being successful, it is important to develop the alternative strategies that may otherwise be utilized in supplementing the same and otherwise helping to ensure the crisis management is effective.
From a personal context, I believe that management of this crisis would help in ensuring the world is safer and better for every individual. Considering the negative impact that the terrorist activities bring to the society, the need for managing this crisis is inevitable, and I understand that through the management of this crisis should be implemented to ensure the flourishing of the business and otherwise providing proper business activities. The research will, therefore, help to understand the various crisis management approaches integrated into terrorist activities, how these strategies have been implemented, their success rate and the new methods that may be utilized in ensuring these and other approaches used are otherwise favorable. The deliverable for this project is a report on these named procedures and the new outlines for the development of crisis management for the terrorist activities globally (Christensen, Lægreid, & Rykkja, 2015). The target audience includes a variety of individuals including the businesses, the government, organizations providing security services and for academic purposes.
- What is the primary cause of the available crisis management approaches for terrorist activities being outdone by the terrorist activities?
- How can we best utilize the resources available globally to be ready for terrorism activities t any period in any place?
- How can technology and communication be used effectively in ensuring the terrorist activities are minimized, and the crisis managed effectively?
These questions target the various aspects of terrorism activities and how these elements may be kept to a minimum and effectively managed. The questions are in general linking to the various literature concerning the situation since they target similar activities which are related to the aspects of terrorism activities. In this regard, the questions are associated, in various ways, with the literature reviewed in this project.
The possible risks to this project include the lack of proper information concerning the terrorist activities that have occurred and those that may otherwise have caused less significant impacts on the globe. Moreover, the various activities of terrorism and how they are managed are not centrally located, and hence there are cost implications in trying to obtain this information since they have occurred in various locations around the globe.
In this regard, the location for this research will be based within the United States among the organizations that have been affected by the issues of terrorism. The costs that will be involved in this research will range in between $200 to $350 all-inclusive of the study materials, accommodation, and transportation. The difficulty in this investigation location is that the individuals who may provide first-hand data for the same may not be available at work or may not be ready to claim the same (Curnin, Owen, Paton & Brooks, 2015). The access will be negotiated regarding clearly stating the purpose of the research to the various administration leaders within the institution and ensuring that we have a plan on how and when the study is to be conducted (Power & Alison, 2016). Moreover, permission will be sought by ensuring that the administration provides the limit to the access of the organizations of study, the policies of the same and otherwise the various workers that may be interviewed and used for the research.
According to Owen, Bearman, Brooks, Chapman, Paton and Hossain, (2013), both the civilians, the workers of an organization, organizations and many other similar firms. The author states that the event that occurred on September 11 the year 2001 was a serious event, which left most people in the world how it was planned. It was even more surprising how the terror attacks could be successfully launched in a super power country and become a success. However, the most astonishing part was how the chains of command to respond to the emergency were organized by various response units in the town. Immediately when the first attack was launched, the military group broke down enthusiasm to help as the situation. The scenario had now gone to the extent that it was out of control various organs including the firefighters, police, rake squad, FBI police commandants and traffics were ordered to control the situation. Shifts followed it to the firefighters, which greatly changed as for those who it was their day off was immediately recalled. The port authorities also flocked the scene making it highly congested for effective action.
However, the various units that reached the scene to avert the situation, all had an aim of doing the best job for recognition. This made the situation to worsen since each unit had its command. The various commands created yet another drama because each command was viewing themselves to be superior to others and could only take orders from their commanders thus creating a scene of confusion and contradiction, which instead of responding to the emergency at hand reported in internal conflicts and defiance. The approach that was used in the management of the crisis was effective, and it was able to manage the crisis in a number of ways (Curnin et al., 2015). To begin with, regardless of the various numbers of people who were affected by the situation, the given scenario is a good example on how these approaches should be approached.
According to Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2013), emergency planning can be very successful if the response units incorporate the community around them since the community must be made aware of the situation so as to lock them out of reaching some places within the secured area to avoid many accidents. In case the community is not sensitized about the ongoing operations, they might likely make the operation to become very hard due to the curiosity which will be involved. Whenever new threats appear, the threats are usually seen as more deadly and more disorganizing than those who have come before. In response to this, we often miss the effectiveness of individual communities when addressing these threats. For example, 1995, when the federal building in Oklahoma City was bombed by some domestic terrorists, the city was acting as a home to a population of about 450,000 and had fifteen hospitals only. Within ninety seconds after the blast, the emergency medical services had seven ambulances and two supervisory vehicles route to the scene.
The final report showed that by around 9:45 a.m., there were more medical personnel, drivers, and people who wanted to help than the site could handle (Drennan, McConnell, & Stark, 2014). The unanticipated emergency response from the community handled injuries in a little more than an hour it shows that the community plays a very vital role in responding to emergency cases since they are always on the scene and can be counted on as the first response unit before the other units from various departments arrive. The same applies to the previous literature as it depicts the cases of similar terrorist activities. However, for this second case, the literature depicts that the terrorist activities that may otherwise be linked with organizational activities must be effectively monitored and the crisis managed in advance.
Based on the findings of Frank (2010), the media is concerned, they normally play an important role in disseminating information and creating awareness of any eventuality that occurs. When an emergency strikes, the media always rush to scene to capture the events and how the various organs deal with such challenges. However, the fine details of the occurrences are prohibited for the media to make public unless authorized by the officer in charge. The leaders thus play a role of giving the media the report to put on the air for public consumption. Sometimes, however, there occurs a conflict of interest where different leaders give contradicting information making the media to act professionally to help the situation in some places leaders typically try to influence the media functioning by barring them from accessing crucial information or refusing to address them in an eventuality. In any environment, there must be ethical issues that govern the operation of the daily occurrence, for the individuals working in multi-agency emergency management; some of the ethical issues they encounter include how to help a patient who has sustained several injuries to the point of death (Coombs, 2007). Sometimes it is good for such patients to be dead rather than live in those conditions. Other ethical issues include hostility and professionalism in operations
For this study, the possible methods to be used in obtaining the information will involve both the Qualitative and Quantities methods. For the qualitative methods, the most important to be used will the use of questionnaires that are to be distributed to the various employees for the studying of what they know concerning the various aspects of terrorism and the crisis management of the same. These questionnaires will have a total of 25 open-ended questions and will not hold the name of the employee or any personal details for anonymity. In addition, within the qualitative measures, the use of interviews will be employed. These interviews will be conducted on the various employees, but the questions will be based on similar aspects of the questionnaires, but they will differ in terms of the way they are to be answered and their construct. The primary aim is to ensure the information received is related to that received within the questionnaires and hence having credibility. In addition, observations on the various aspects and risks caused by the terrorist attacks especially from the important scenarios and the available evidence from pictures taken concerning these given aspects.
In terms of the Quantitative measures, the use of surveys will be utilized to examine the various aspects of the terrorist attacks and how the same. Examination of these scenes will provide details on the various risks that these attacks caused and how they affected the community. In addition, surveys on how these risks were averted will provide details on the effectiveness of these measures and the available possibilities for improvements on the same. In addition, the research will utilize external and secondary sources of data on previous researchers and other studies conducted on similar aspects of the situation (Falkheimer, 2014). The study will utilize these studies in understanding the various approaches that were applied in the research and how this information helped in risk management for the terrorist attack crisis.
These methods are of vital importance in this research because they will provide details on the background of the issue, help in examining the issue and otherwise provide details on how the same may be reformed in the crisis management. These methodologies will also provide statistical data on how many terrorist events have been accounted for and the crisis management approaches that were implemented, considering those that were successful and those which were not. The reasons that these approaches were chosen is because they are useful and have been proven as being the approaches that may otherwise be utilized by various researchers to provide professional information for further studying and analysis of data (American Public Health Association, 2011).
This research is intended at achieving various aspects of the terrorist activities and crisis management of these elements. For instance, the research is aimed at showing how the previous crisis management approaches have succeeded in managing the related terrorist attacks, and for those that have not managed to maintain the same effect, information about them will be examined, and a clear understanding of the underlying reasons will be established. In addition, the research is intended at providing new approaches on how terrorist activities may be managed effectively and how these risks may be clearly averted.
The target audience will enjoy massive benefits arising from this research paper. To begin with, this audience will have enough knowledge of the various terrorist attacks that have been recorded, the count of the ones successfully managed through the information systems, and the count of those not effectively managed considering the various outcomes and results on the same. The audience will also benefit with information on how the crisis management may be developed and how to measure the effectiveness of the same. They will obtain knowledge on how the crisis management of the terrorist attacks is helpful and how this risk management plan may be used in the various settings to avert the issues of terrorist activities. The audience will also have knowledge on the reasons why the various terrorist attacks occur especially in various countries and the underlying impacts that these terrorist activities bring. In this regard, therefore, the research is intended to provide various information.
|WORK PLAN FOR THE RESEARCH|
|Literature review||The literature review will be the first item in the work plan. The literature review is observed to take a minimum of five days studying the same and may take up to two weeks while examining the available literature to support the claims and the process itself.|
|Interviews, surveys, and other methodologies for studying||These will take a minimum of four weeks, as only five employees may be interviewed or issued with the questionnaires in a day within a particular organization. The organizations to be examined will be four, and hence there will need to undertake the examination within the four weeks.|
|Data Analysis||The first data analysis will be done in two phases, and these two phases will be done only in two-week time.|
|Phase one of data analysis||The first phase will be done in the first week of data collection from the various organizations, and the information will be held awaiting the second phase of data analysis.|
|Phase two of data analysis||The second phase of the data analysis will be done in the second week after the final data collection is complete. However, the same will be repeated after the four weeks after which the data will have been collected, and the same will be examined and linked with the previously compiled data from the first week of examination of the data.|
|Reporting||The reporting will be done soon after the data is fully analysed. However, for reasons that may lead to the project being hauled, the reports from every data analysis and collection stages will comply with the part two of the analysis is done and hence this will work as a backup and reference for the research report.|
Emergency preparedness may be defined as pre-impact activities, which establish a state of readiness to respond to an extreme event, or events, which could affect the lives of a community. It thus determines organizational readiness in minimizing the adverse impact of such events either by means of active responses for protecting the health and safety of the inhabitants or by the integrity and functioning of physical structures as outlined. Emergency planning can be very successful if the response units incorporate the community around them since the community must be made aware of the situation to lock them out of reaching some places within the secured area to avoid many accidents. In case the community is not sensitized about the ongoing operations, they might likely make the operation to become very hard due to the curiosity which will be involved. The possible methods to be used in obtaining the information will involve both the Qualitative and Quantities methods.
American Public Health Association. (2011). Special Report: Expert Round Table on Social media and Risk Communication During Times of Crises – Strategic Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.apha.org/.
Curnin, S., Owen, C., Paton, D., & Brooks, B. (2015). A theoretical framework for negotiating the path of emergency management multi-agency coordination. Applied ergonomics, 47, 300-307.
Coombs, W. T. (2007). Attribution theory as a guide for post-crisis communication research. Public Relations Review, 33, 135-139
Crandall, W. R., Parnell, J. A., & Spillan, J. E. (2013). Crisis management: Leading in the new strategy landscape. Sage Publications. From http://www.sedsi.org/2009_Conference/proc/proc/p081010007.pdf
Christensen, T., Lægreid, P., & Rykkja, L. H. (2015). The challenges of coordination in national security management–the case of the terrorist attack in Norway. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 81(2), 352-372. From http://www.academia.edu/download/43910344/The_challenges_of_coordination_in_nation20160320-31667-1tx8rrv.pdf
Drennan, L. T., McConnell, A., & Stark, A. (2014). Risk and crisis management in the public sector. Routledge.
Frank, T. (2010). Social media play part in Haiti’s recovery efforts. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com
Falkheimer, J. (2014). Crisis communication and terrorism: The Norway attacks on 22 July 2011. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(1), 52-63.
Owen, C., Bearman, C., Brooks, B., Chapman, J., Paton, D., & Hossain, L. (2013). Developing a research framework for complex multi–team coordination in emergency management. International Journal of Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-17.
Power, N., & Alison, L. (2016). Offence or defence? Approach and avoid goals in the multi‐agency emergency response to a simulated terrorism attack. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology.