The Great Philosopher

The Great Philosopher

According to Spengler, Werner, Helps, Atkinson and Rogers (2001) every culture tends to vary from different periods. However, many philosophers have different arguments on culture in various time periods (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001).  The paper will explain the life, times, and critical theories of Rene Descartes who is one of the most significant thinkers who ever inquired into the connection between mind and body (Chattopadhyaya & Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture, 2009). The study will also explain how culture and period influenced his ideas. Also, the paper will identify and evaluate the key concepts and that comprise Descartes’ theories. Furthermore, the research will detect and describe Descartes’ contributions to the field of philosophy.

Kern (2003) argues that the key concepts showcased in his paradigms include the theory of sense perception and the theory of ideas that he mostly concentrates on. According to Descartes’ ontology, there are three levels of being that serve as mode attribute and substance. The levels of being are agreed regarding ontological requirement (Chattopadhyaya & Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture, 2009). Modes rely on attributes of their being in a way that those same characteristics do not depend on methods used and but to rely on the substances for their being in a way that elements do not depend on the features (Spengler, Werner, Helps, Atkinson and Rogers, 2001). The spirit or nature of a mind, as Descartes states, is to think. If something does not have faith it is not a mind. In his analytical evaluation, this very feature of Descartes’ theory postulates that, Vere Chappell introduced the terminology of “counterparts” (Chappell, 2006). The sun as symbolized in an approach, is taken to be the “objective sun”, “the scenario would be an objective counterpart of that familiar body that exists in the sky (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001). The sun in the heavens, the real sun, could be taken in the subject’s context to be the “formal sun”. In these terms, the objective ‘sun’ is the idea that is made objectively.

Rene Descartes contributes vastly in the field of psychology. Chattopadhyaya and Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture (2009) asserts that the greatest contribution of Descartes was more to philosophy and metaphysics than to psychology or science.  His renowned assertion cogito ergo sum–“I think, therefore I am.”–is of far greater importance than is comprehended (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001). Descartes asked himself a question and pursued it rigorously. He first questioned his senses where he asked himself how he could know that his physical senses are giving him a genuine and accurate picture of reality, or anything else, for that matter, but he was not sure. Kern (2003) explains that he did not give up on his small research (Spengler et al., 2001). Descartes posed a question again to his conscious mind to whether there was anything that the mind can know that must be true. The answer to the issue brought about an invention of a hypothetical of “evil genie.” The” evil genie” could make him to think anything it wanted him to ponder, and he would not be able to recognize the deceit (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2009).The possibility disallowed using his mind as a source of proof. In the end, he was left with only one thing of which he could be certain without doubt or reservation.  He therefore described the concept of ageless child wisdom whereby he encouraged all to ask questions since they are provocative (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001).

Psychologically, Rene Descartes principle contribution was in line of thinking that parts of the brain were the key to our humanity, and the negative influence based on the idea that animals are machines (Spengler et al., 2001). His dualistic view of human nature, in my opinion, was the main contributor to the Western way of thinking, leading to massive creativity in our analytical way of thought. However, it ran counter to the modern, unitary, materialistic view of reality.

His other contribution to the field of psychology is the challenged dogmatic beliefs with methodic doubt.   He also gave arguments to “prove” inherent knowledge (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001). Rene Descartes-inspired rationalization of abstract thoughts or rather concepts. He promoted skepticism and new ideas. Descartes is therefore seen as one of the most significant thinkers who ever inquired into the connection between mind and body (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2009).

Descartes’s as a great philosopher is mainly known for human reason. He began with the premise that the only way to be sure of anything is to doubt everything. In so doing, Descartes arrived at the conclusion that the one and only thing he could be very sure of, was the actual act of doubting regarded as the mental process (Mall, 2000). Descartes postulated a radical mind-body dualism, claiming that the universe consisted of two utterly distinct substances, mind, and matter (Spengler et al., 2001).

Descartes decided to create a whole new system of thought that would join all knowledge.  The creation became the biggest undertaking in philosophy since Aristotle. As a result, Descartes is termed the founder of modern philosophy. Descartes philosophy placed a heavy emphasis on deductive reasoning and mathematics (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2009). He developed new tools the analysis that significantly enabled the ability of the scientists to use mathematics to shape the world, strengthening the definition of science as the study of measurable quantities. His greatest effect on science, and on our culture, came from his this dualism model of reality (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001).

Spengler et al., (2001) explains that his ideas were greatly influenced by both culture and the time period. The scenario is believed to have resulted from dualism model. He then suggested two separate areas that include physical and the mental fields, characterized by their own properties respectively (Mall, 2000). For instance, the mental field can be observed as a transcendent to the physical reality, while the physical field can be measured and therefore read by science. The dualism approach served the field of science well at the time being (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2009). By putting religion and science in separate fields, the initiative allowed the scientists to continue without being burned. However, it also influenced the culture greatly.

Reference to Zeller and Alleyne (2001) reveals that the approach put the study of mind outside the science field.  Because of the concept, there were results that included, involving the mind as a subject to be investigated and later termed as unscientific. The second consequence included banish of mind, termed as the subject matter (Spengler et al., 2001). The element leads to separation of technology in different areas such as in the engineer and philosophy. In short, technology is being developed outside any considerations of its wisdom. The culture and time period has influenced the viewing of the body as a machine because of the medicine approach that has led to ignorance of the patient doctor-relationship (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2009).

Mall (2000) states that he can generally be described as the father of the modern society. Rene was the first great figure in the rationale, that is simply the method of understanding the world based on the use of a genuine reason as the means to acquire knowledge (Zeller & Alleyne, 2001). René Descartes makes society to reexamine itself leading to a big change of traditions and institutions in social upheaval (Mall, 2000). He serves as a role model to any individual worldwide into bringing up of the highlighted ideas.

References

Spengler, O., Werner, H., Helps, A., Atkinson, C. F., & Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. (2001). The decline of the West. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chattopadhyaya, D. P., & Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture. (2009). History of science, philosophy and culture in Indian civilization. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Zeller, E., & Alleyne, S. F. (2001). A history of Greek philosophy from the earliest period to the time of Socrates. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Mall, R. A. (2000). Intercultural philosophy. Lanham, Md. [u.a.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kern, S. (2003). The culture of time and space: 1880-1918. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: Harvard Univ. Press.

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