Tissue typing

     Tissue typing


Tissue typing refers to the procedure involving a test on the tissues of a probable donor to determine if the persons are compatible with the organs of a probable recipient before they are transferred. Tissue typing has similarities with the paternity test which is used to confirm the real biological parents of a child.

The importance of tissue typing is to increase the success of a transplant by reducing the risk of rejection of an organ by the recipient’s body. If a person wishes to donate a kidney, tissue typing must be done so as to ensure that the recipient does not react to the new kidney.

An organ refers to a part of an organism that specializes to perform a specific function. The organ is made up of a group of tissues which are adapted to perform a certain function.  An organ system, on the other hand, refers to a group of organs that perform one or many functions working together.

Organ systems are found in higher animals’ examples being, reproductive system, respiratory system, lymphatic system, cardiovascular system among others. The body in humans is made up 11 organ systems each performing its function.

The cardiovascular system has the heart to pump blood that is different from the lymphatic that is made up of vessels and nodes. In the lymphatic system, the circulating fluid has no blood cells and blood proteins as opposed to blood that is the circulating fluid in the cardiovascular system (Dotrora & Dericckson, 2010).

Flow of blood in the cardiovascular system takes place in an open circuit to all parts of the body through the veins, arteries and capillaries on the other hand, the flow of lymph is in an open circuit from the tissues to the vessels of the lymphatic system and the flow occurs only in one direction. When the blood vessels are injured, it can easily be detected after bleeding contrary to the blood vessels when the lymphatic vessel are damaged it is difficult to notice because lymph is colorless and damage can only be detected after swelling.

According to Dotrora and Derrickson (2010), the nervous system passes messages through electric pulses while on the other hand the endocrine system communicates by using chemical stimuli to transmit the stimuli to the target systems. The endocrine system regulates body growth and metabolism while the nervous system regulates functions of brain growth and development.

The Endocrine system has some glands which secrete hormones but the nervous system is made up of neurons. The signal transmission of signals is fast in the nervous system but the effects are short lived on the contrary transmission in the endocrine system occurs slowly but the effects are long lasting. The endocrine system uses circulatory system in signal transmission but the nervous system uses neurons (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010).

An epidemic is disease occurrence more than the usually expected level in a given area and has the potential of spreading to other areas with no history of having the disease. On the other hand, a pandemic is a disease occurring on a global scale and affecting large numbers of people and spreads very fast (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010). A disease   which is concentrated only in one geographical region is what is known as an epidemic while a pandemic spreads beyond the national borders.

Pandemics are common today because both the public and the authorities are not informed about the risks enabling the diseases to spread very fast. A bacteria is made up of a group microorganisms which has no organelles or the nucleus, and some have the potential of causing disease

The mechanism bacteria uses to cause disease releasing toxins that damage body cells. The bacteria can also multiply at a very high in the body and cause crowding in the host tissues and the normal functions are disrupted. The bacteria also have the potential of paralyzing metabolic machinery causing an immune response which is harmful to the host.

Vaccines work by preventing infections in the body while antibiotics are used to cure infections either by destroying   bacteria or by blocking their multiplication (Dotrora and Dericckson, 2010).Vaccines are designed to boost immunity in the body in preparation of an attack. Vaccination has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of controlling infectious diseases through. Herd immunity is acquired after vaccination of a significantly large proportion of the population.

Antibiotics attack the bacteria directly and kill them preventing them from causing further damage to the body. The antibiotics alter the biochemical pathway which is useful to the bacteria during the formation of the cell wall. The cell wall produced by the bacteria is weakened and for other cell walls formed after multiplication of bacteria. This means the bacteria are weakened in all aspects and they eventually die.

It would be a great disadvantage for ligaments to have a lot of elastic fibers because bone movements would be practically impossible.  The muscles would contract as usual and stretch the elastic tendons, but the bones will not move (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010). The situation means that we could not have body movements like folding our arms.

On the other hand, if the ligaments were stretchy there were would be nothing preventing the joints moving out of the sockets. If the joints moved out of the sockets, walking would be impossible. The dislocation resulting from such movements can cause bones to be seen as projecting from the skin. The blood vessels would also be regularly damaged by such uncontrolled movements (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010).

It is important to note that if the ligaments tear a knee dislocation can occur. If the dislocation is not well handled the victim might lead to the loss of the leg. The ligaments have the function of holding the knee stable in a certain position.

The doctor advised Rogers to avoid contact sports mainly to reduce the chances of the only kidney he had from getting injured. One of the advantages of having two kidneys is because when you lose one of them, the other can still function (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010).  If a person with one kidney loses it, the result would be inevitable death if a transplant is not quickly done.

Another benefit is that having two kidneys means you have more nephrons, and therefore filtering of waste products is more efficient even after aging (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010). A person with two kidneys have two times more number of nephrons. It therefore means that even if some become dysfunctional over time, you will not likely experience major problems as it would be if you had one kidney.

Having two kidneys also has enabled kidney transplant, and one can help a relative with failing kidneys by donating one to them.  If a person has one kidney cannot donate a kidney to save another life.

Anthrax has been developed as a weapon in many countries which is a challenge to eliminating the disease completely. Anthrax can take up to two months before the physical symptoms appear. However, in some patients it can manifest itself on the second day after infection. Another challenge is that inhaled anthrax has a very minimal chance of not killing the victim (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010).

Another major challenge in controlling anthrax is that the spores remain active and infective for many years in the soil.  Their potential to cause an outbreak after so many years makes it hard for the health experts to prevent another major attack from occurring.

According to (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010), anthrax vaccine exists but has not been approved due to inadequate testing in human trials. Vaccines are very powerful and can only be recommended after the specific bacteria causing the disease has been established (Dotrora & Dericckson, 2010).

If the lymphatic system was absent in the body there would be excessive accumulation of tissue fluid. The accumulation would lead to chronic inflammation, formation of fibrotic tissues and also increase the chances of developing cancer.

The absence of lymphatic system would   have an effect on the body’s ability to fight infections. The lymphatic system is responsible for the production of lymphocytes which fight infections. Without the lymphatic system the body would be exposed to many infections (Tortora & Derrickson, 2010).


Tortora, B Derrickson (2010). Essentials of anatomy and physiology.Wiley: New Jersey



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