Water management and pollution
Water management is the process of managing water resources under set regulations and policies. Water makes Up about 75% of the earth but this commodity is becoming more scarce by the day especially fresh clean water, this has led to increased demand for management to conserve the little amount available and do away with misuse and pollution. Water pollution is degradation of the environment that happens when pollutants are indirectly or directly released to water sources without enough treatment to eliminate harmful substances (Fortin, 2017). Water pollution affects its management since it’s difficult to manage water that is detrimental to both human beings and animals. Water management requires the elimination of harmful products in water so that it is suitable for human consumption. Water management affects pollution since contamination is a result of poor management water, thus the primary objective of water management organization is to prevent pollutants from getting into water sources and prosecuting all people that may be involved in contamination or misuse of water.
Water pollution is a result of many issues which introduce harmful effluents into water bodies. Floods and run off carry with them toxic chemicals and dirt which eventually end up in seas and rivers. Also, irrigation along river banks can pollute water as chemicals such as fertilizers that are useful in farming can end up in the river. Another issue is when crude oil that is being transported to different continents by sea spills into open oceans killing water animals by denying penetration of oxygen (Hermes, 2017). Acid rain also contributes to water pollution through air pollution where poisonous gasses precipitate to form rain that destroys roofs and kills sea organisms. The release of liquid waste products from industries leads to contamination of rivers and lakes make the water unfit for both human use and consumption by animals. Also, use of lead pipes to transport water is harmful because water may react with lead to form a harmful compound which has health effects on human beings.
There are a variety of water pollution types depending on the sources one example is groundwater contamination which occurs when people use chemicals into the soil which end up being washed deeper into the ground contaminating borehole water. Nutrients pollution is another one where sewage and fertilizers get into water bodies facilitating the growth of algae and weeds making the water unusable (Woodford, 2016). Another type is chemical pollution which occurs when industries and farmers release chemical wastes which contain poisonous metals and solvents that poison water. Suspended matter is also a form of pollution based on substances that do not fully dissolve in water. Suspended pollutants settle in water sources thus killing marine organisms. The final type of water pollution is oxygen depletion; this occurs when a lot biodegradable objects end up in water enabling the growth of microorganisms which consume more oxygen leading to the death of anaerobic and aerobic organisms which survive in water. There is a need for human beings to regulate the amount of biodegradable matter in water bodies to prevent pollution.
Improper use of Soil can lead to serious effects on the soil. For instance, lack of soil cover may result in soil erosion such that fertile soils are transported into water bodies leading to siltation which causes flooding and clogs drainage systems. Siltation also prevents aeration of water and relocates water organism (Hermes, 2017). Application of fertilizers in the soil can lead to pollution when the nutrients are washed away into water bodies causing pollution through the growth of algae. Soil contains anthrax spores when they are washed away by run-off water and ends up in rivers and lakes there is a health effect. People who consume water from this water sources are at risk of contracting anthrax. Finally, using raw sewage to irrigate leads to maturity of plants with harmful products like lead which can cause cancer when consumed.
Water pollution can be controlled through the use of organic fertilizers which do not have chemicals and poisonous nutrients (Woodford, 2016). Construction of gabions and terraces can prove very significant in preventing soil erosion that leads to siltation in rivers. Also, water pollution can be avoided by irrigating away from water bodies especially river banks to prevent chemicals from entering the river. Planting of trees prevent soil erosion by providing cover, also trees provide oxygen thus preventing acid rain which pollutes water. Soil treatment through lime or planting plants that use harmful toxins that could contaminate underground water. Water conservation can be achieved through recycling of sewage, reuse of non-biodegradable materials. Planting trees and controlling of industry waste is very vital in management and preservation of water.
Fortin, J. (2017, March 4). Americaâ