What assessments would you conduct to enhance your understanding of the client’s problems and how would your choice of assessment(s) inform your diagnostic formation and treatment planning? Explain

Forensic Psychology Comprehensive Examination

Crystal Hill Comprehensive Examination Argosy University
Dr. Gelhart

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam

Forensic Psychology Comprehensive Examination Questions

Psychological Theory and Practice

A. What assessments would you conduct to enhance your understanding of the client’s problems and how would your choice of assessment(s) inform your diagnostic formation and treatment planning? Assessments may include structured or unstructured interviews, valid and reliable assessment measures, andjor formalized assessment procedures that may be conducted by yourself or by someone else referred by you.
To enhance my understanding of Camilo’s problems I would first

administer a Mental Status Exam (MSE), which would give me insight as to Camilo’s cognitions; with respect to how he processes his thoughts, the content of his thoughts (normal/ abnormal), as well as his perceptiveness and psychosis. Additionally the MSE would allow me to document his affect, speech patterns, intellect and appearance. Within the interview process in order to establish an environment conducive of achieving a higher level of reliability and comfort a less structural approach may be more suitable.
Additionally reviewing his entire criminal record, medical and psychological history of himself and family could reveal pertinent indicators of hereditary traits and potential red flags of maladaptive behavior trends throughout his life which may have been previously overlooked or misdiagnosed. It may also be beneficial to refer Camilo for a physical if one hasn’t been administered within the last year in order to see if any medical issues are contributing to his current state, as well as a toxicology test which will reveal rather or not substances are contributing to his shift in mood, personality and
thinking or if it is a medical condition (i.e. thyroids). Prior information has

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
indicated that Camilo has used marijuana and may have possibly been under the influence during a recent interview. Furthermore since he’s previously been medically prescribed antipsychotics (Risperdal) and stimulants (Ritalin) research into the side effects could further assist in evaluating other potential causal factors in his maladaptive behavior.
Being that a previous intellectual exam indicated that he’s within the Low- Average range, yet he passed the 11th grade even despite his inability to focus
and hyperactivity. It may be beneficial to further assess his intellect with the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WAIS-JV) which will measure his verba\

comp(.ehension,_pe(.ceptual reasoning, working memory and, processing s eed (YVechsler, David, 1958). Background information as well as collateral interviews have revealed that Camilo has issues with irritability, aggressiveness and disregard for other people’s rights, which suggests that and additional exploration into these behaviors are should be examined, therefore a referral for MMPI-2 testing would be beneficial in obtaining information as it relates to Camilo’s personality traits and psychopathology. The MMPI-2 is a 567 true/false Inventory comprised of 14 scales which measures human behavior and validity
of the general test (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). This test will measure Camilo’s perception and preoccupation of his bodily symptoms, depressive symptoms level, his emotionality, need for control or rebellion, level of paranoia, schizophrenic tendencies and level of hyperactivity (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005.
This test will not require any interpretation on my part of what Camilo is
experiencing being that the responses are straightforward. The Psychopat

Checklist- revised (PCL-.EJ, is another ychological assessm..§l!j source of

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
information that could pose useful in revealing additional insight as to Camilo’

personality traits and behaviors (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). This 20-item inventory
is consists of two factors: Factor !….Qaptures traits dealing with the inteypeysonal
manipulation,ck of emeathy) whereas factor 2 deals with symetoms relating behavior controls, juvenile delin uenc.)l (Hare & Hakstians (1989). Factor 2 has

been correlated with antisocial personality disorder, impulsivity and juvenile delinquency (Hare & Hakstians, (1989).

Exploring Camilo’s psychosocial and environmental stressors through interviewing individuals closely related to him or who have observed him may also offer additional information into how he interacts within the various
settings of his home, school and during leisure activities; thus offering a holistic

view of Camilo’s life.

B. Provide your diagnostic impressions (based on either the DSM-5 or DSM-IV-TR)
for this individual. In narrative form, please describe how the individual meets the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s) chosen in addition to the differential diagnostic thought process that you used to reach your hypotheses. Be sure to include any additional (missing) information that is needed to either rule out or confirm your differential diagnoses.

Principle Diagnosis:

# 1 Antisocial Personality disorder 301.7 (APD)
Justification: m
An important component of an APD diagnosis is that there is e idence o

Conduct disorder presentor tot15 (Bartol & Bartol, 2008) . Although

Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
there isn’t mentioned that Camilo was diagnosed in adolescence with Conduct disorder his past suggest that he does fit the criteria for the diagnosis based on the information which was provided. Conduct Disorder (CD) criteria: at least 3
of the following persistent behavioral patterns must be exhibited: bullies others,
frequent fights, use weapons on others, physically cruel to people or animals,
robs others while confronting the victim or without confronting victim, rape, fire setting, vandalism, breaking and entering, lying to avoid obligations or for
personal gain, staying out late despite parental prohibitions, running away from

home, or skipping school (APA, 2000). It has been reported that Camilo upon being under the guardianship of the Smith family began displaying similar symptomatic behavior closely associated with CD. Camilo’s legal, social services and clinical records indicates that he has poor relationships with the Smith family, has run away from home numerous times, has set fire to his home, been arrested for public indecency and his disposition can be viewed as hostile and aggreSSIVe.
Based on the reported information it can possibly be inferred that Camilo has been experiencing conduct and criminal behaviors since around the age of
12 or so, which meets the criteria of exhibited behaviors prior to age 15. A key component of the APD diagnosis is that they individual is pervasive, exhibits a pattern of disregard for others rights consisting of a minimum of 3 of the following criteria: unlawful behaviors, deceiving others for personal profit or pleasure, lack of remorse and rationalizing their behavior, impulsivity, anger, repeated fights or assaults (APA, 2000). Thus far it appears that Camilo’s personality traits appear to be beyond typical behavior and is inflexible. His
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
traits have created functional impairment and caused his subjective distress. He’s had 4 previous detentions at the Metro Detention Center, engages regularly in altercations with other even to the point of making terrorist threats to commit bodily harm or death, feeling unwanted by his adoptive family and he’s viewed
as lacking self-control and impulsive.

Since it was noted that Camilo has used Marijuana in the past it would be beneficial to have a toxicology report as mentioned previously to definitively indicate whether his mood is affected by the substance or even taking into the possible side effects of the Risperdal and/ or Ritalin if he was still taking the medications. Should the toxicology report come back and suggest that behavior was not induced by the substances and diagnosis of ASPD can be made. Furthermore, being that Camilo also according to his records was prescribed Ritalin for Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has an increased risk of developing symptomatic behaviors for ASPD.
I also considered Intermittent Explosive disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However Camilo without additional information hasn’t shown any remorse or regret for his actions after an aggressive incident which are key component of the Intermittent Explosive Disorder. Although APD
and BPD have common characteristics of unstable relationships, impulsivity and anger, Camilo history doesn’t suggests that he’s exhibited the borderline traits of suicidal ideations, emotional instability and self-mutilation (APA, 2000). Hence additional information or the results of his MMPI-2 assessment would be needed in order to confidently suggest Intermittent Explosive Disorder or Borderline Personality Disorder. l.t. isj mgpr.tant to also note that APD. · more prevalent ..
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
males, whereas Borderline Personality Disorder statistically more prevalent in women, therefore Camilo is at higher risk of a APD diagnosis without additional observation to fully confirm a different diagnosis.

#2. Schizophrenia 295.70; depressed type unspecified/Bipolar Disorder

Justification :

The vignette also mentions Camilo’s change in eating habits (increased appetite), feelings of sadness and down, and lack of sleep, inability to complete every day functions (i.e. showering and brushing his teeth properly) which could be symptomatic signs of depression. Also he has previously been prescribed Risperdal, which is an antipsychotic medication which is used is treating Bipolar disorder and Schizophrenia. It’s possible that Camilo has experienced Bipolar Depression or Schizophrenia, yet further information is still need as to exactly why Risperdal was prescribed to him at Happy Farms mental hospital. A request of release of information from Camilo would allow me to speak with his treating doctor there and review his records, which would offer additional insight into his symptoms and whether or not if his symptoms are better explained as major depression.
It is often Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder as

misdiagnosed (Frances & Ross, 2001). Robins et al., (1991) conducted the
Epidemological Catchment Area (ECA) stud which concluded that the

2revalence of schizophrenia was 6.9 times higher among men with APD. Research suggests that morbid APD amplifies the suffering o( people with schizophrenia. Among men with schizophrenia, comorbid APD is associated with
2_ersistent criminality, much of it nonviolent, that begins in adolescence and
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
often leads to im rison ment (!:Iodgins and Cote 1993) Frink et a!. 2003, suggests
that a percentage of children with conduct disorder, as well as some adults with

APD (gooke and Michiel997) will also show two pet.sonality traits embedded
within yc hopathy: arrogant and deceitful interpersonal conduct, and deficient
affective experience.t includes four items: lack of remorse or guilt, shallow

‘t is has been ,hypothesized that these traits emerges earl_y in life, contributes to
antisocial behavior, and is connect with re etitive violence (Cooke and Michie

1997; Blair 2003)

It is also important to take into consider environmental stressors such as being in detention centers, lack of support from care-givers, marijuana usage
and lack of finances and job. Each contributes in its own way to Camilo’s

behaviors and possible treatment.

Legal Theory and Application

A. Explain the background, current presentation, and behavior of the client utilizing theories of offender and/or victim psychology and personality/psychological theories to support your position. Do not simply restate the client’s presentation from the vignette. Instead, provide a theoretical-based discussion of the client’s behaviors as presented in the vignette.

A theoretical approach to Camilo’s maladaptive behaviors such as impulsivity and aggression may be better explained through Psychodynamic Trait Theory and may offer insight as to how his upbringing and experiences early in childhood has cultivated his current presentation and behaviors.

Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory was developed in the 1800’s and
is known as a significant part of the history of criminality (Siegel, 2005). Freud

believed that “residue of the most significant emotional attachments of our childhood, which then guides our future interpersonal relationships” (Siegel,
2005, p. lll) . The theory is based on the ld, Ego and the Super Ego. The ld is

the primitive aspect of our composition and is focused on instant gratification.
The ld controls our need foli sleep, food and basic instincts. The ego establishes
boundaries, whereas the superego judges morality. When an individual is dominated by the ld and loses control over his ego, the need for instant
gratification will take over, which can cause immaturity, poor social skills, and

excessive dependence on others (Siegel, 2005).

Therefore, in applying trait theory to Camilo’s background it could be concluded that the negative experiences in his childhood (i.e. mother abusing drugs, father in prison, lack of relationship with biological parents, and the
sudden death of his adoptive mother) are all possible contributors to his

maladaptive behaviors.

B. Describe the psycholegal standards and/or definitions for each of the following:
competence to stand trial, risk of dangerousness, and insanity.
Identify and describe one or more landmark case(s) for each standard (at least three cases total) . Describe the elements or issues that a mental health professional usually focuses on when assessing a person’s adjudicative competence, risk and insanity, and any additional items that might be especially important to focus on in the provided vignette.

• Competence to stand trial: is defined as the legal requirement that a defendant is able to understand the proceedings and to help the attorney
in preparing a defense (Bartol & Bartol, 2008).


Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam

The standard for adjudicative competency within the U.S. was established and guided by the ruling in Dusky v. United States. 271 F.2d 385. 395 (8th Cir. Mo. 1960/ which emphasized the defendants cognitive ability to understand and the behavioral ability to cooperate with counsel by being able to recall facts and events about the case and his motives/actions, assist in planning a legal strategy, and be able to waive constitutional rights (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). It is important to note that the standards vary by state, yet the criterion outlined in Dusky v. United States is fundamentally the base of each statute.
Nevertheless, if a person’s state of mind changes to [il1com etent to stand trial there is the ikelihood that the court 0)1request that the individual be involuntarily medicated in order to bring about a level of
competency. In Sell v. United States (2003) established that the court may request for involuntary medication to be administered to adjudicated
incom ent defendants if certain requirements were met: the defendant is

facing serious criminal charges; but only if the treatment is medically a_pQLoQ!iate (Hilgers & Ramer 2004). However, is Camilo’s defense is for a
plea of insanity and his demeanor at trial will be vital to that defense
under Riggins v. Nevada ( 1992) the Supreme Court that Riggins Sixth and

Fourteenth Amendments were violated and that any person awaiting trial has a valid reason under due process clause, to refuse medication.
• Risk of dangerousness: The characteristic of individual’s which render

Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
them serious threats to their own wellbeing or the safety of others (Bartol

& Bartol, 2008) .

Criminal responsibility is dependent upon and individual sanity at

the time of offense (Bartol & Bartol 2008. In the case of Foucha v.
Louisiana, ( 1992) The U.S. Supreme Court case addressed the criteria
needed for continued commitment of an individual found not guilty by reason of insanity. Defendant remained confined on the basis that he still potentially could be a danger to others and himself even though there was
evidence that he no longer suffered from a mental illness. Additionally the

court held that “(I) under the circumstances, the state was not entitled to continue the confinement of Foucha solely on the basis of his antisocial personality disorder, given that (a) even if such continued confinement were constitutionally permissible, keeping him against his will in a mental institution was indecorous without determining in civil commitment proceedings a current mental illness and dangerousness, (b) if Foucha no longer could be held as an insanity acquittee in a mental facility, he is entitled to constitutionally suitable procedures to establish the grounds
for his confinement, (c) the state had no punitive interest in imprisoning the person for the purposes of deterrence and retribution, and (d) the state had not explained why, if the person had committed criminal acts while at the psychiatric facility, the state’s interest would not be vindicated by
other permissible ways of dealing with patterns of criminal conduct”

(Foucha, 1992) .

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
Issues that therapist face is assessing for criminal responsibility of an individual being a danger to others is addressed in the Tarasoff case in which therapist are required with a “duty to wam” third parties of potential injurious behavior from our client.

• Insanity Standard: requires two fundamental criteria irrationality and

compulsion. Each state essentially sets their own legal standards, however
the vast majority are modeled after either the M’Naghten Rule, Brawner

Rule or Duraham Rule (Bartol & Bartol, 2008).

The M’Naghten Rule (right Jwrong test) states that a person is not

responsible for a criminal act if “a the time o{ the committing act, the party accused was laboring under such a defect reason from disease of the
mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing, or he did know it … he did not know he was doing what was wrong” (as cited by Bartol & Bartol, 2008). Basically under this rule you’re either responsible or not, there are no uncertainties.
Being that the insanity standard varies by state let’s take a look at
the Geoar standard, which states “A person shall not be found guilty of a

crime, if at the time of the act, omission, OJ;,JLegligenc;e constituting

crime the_ p_erson did not have mental cap_acity to distinguish betwee [.ight and wrong … the person, because of mental disease, in·L1!!Y, or congenital deficiency, acte_si as he did because of delusional comP.J.ilsion…8§ [2. such act over mastered his will to resist committing the crime” (Official
Code of Georgia, §16-3-2,3).

Resea.rch and Evaluation

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
A. Describe tests or assessment procedures you would employ to address the
psycholegal issues of (competence to stand trial, risk of dangerousness, and insanity). You may refer to these from the Psychological Theory and Assessment Section “A” if you already covered them there. Discuss what the anticipated conclusions would be based upon information provided in the vignette.

Competency to Stand Trail

The MacArthur Competency Assessment Tool – Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) is commonly used forensic assessment instrum ent of 22 items developed to assess for the standards set by Dusky Standard for competency: understand, reasoning and appreciation and may be used to also assess treatment progess with respect to restoration for competency who’ve been identified as not have ID; this tool is also is useful with insanity rulings in that it can be used to measure treatment towards competency (Grisso & Appelcbaum, 1994).
Camilo’s current state appears to be competent in that he is able to consent to his evaluations, but further testing I believe is required being that he has a low IQ and struggles with staying focused and attentive in order to establish his rationalize adversely and ability to understand the charges brought against him as well as his role. An additional
Risk of Dangerousness
Historical/Clinical/Risk Management (HCR-20) scale which is predictive of:

past or historical factors, clinical or current factors and risk management factors

(Bartol & Bartol 2008) . The results of the assessment assist the court by predicting
the possibility of a defendant’s future potential for violence, as well as how the

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
hearings should proceed and the appropriate facility to house the individual (Bartol

& Bartol, 2008).

The historical area is conducted by extensive review of collateral interviews and extensive review of previous records the H domain consists of 10 items: previous violence, young age at first violent incident, relationship instability, employment problems, substance use problems, major mental illness, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, psychopathy, which can be defined as personality traits that deviate from social norms, such as manipulating and exploiting others for personal gain , early maladjustment, or exposure to family and
social disruptions during childhood that lead to coping problems (could be abuse or divorce, for example), personality disorder, such as paranoia, failure to respond to clinical supervision or treatment in the past-may be related to noncompliance to treatment, such as refusing to take medications or attend therapy sessions
(Webster eta!., 1997, p. 263).

The Clinical domain is interviewed based and assists the examiner by
identifying 5 scales: Lack of insight, or difficulty understanding cause and effect,

negative attitudes, active symptoms of major mental illness, impulsivity, unresponsiveness to treatment and the Risk Management domain assesses for: the person’s plans, lack feasibility, exposure to destabilizers, which means that family
or social supports are missing, or that alcohol and drugs are available, lack of personal support, refusal to attend counseling sessions or take medications and
stress (Webster eta!., 1997, p. 263).

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ArgosyiJniversity MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
B. Develop one empirically supported therapeutic treatment plan for the client in the vignette. Please make sure you summarize the empirical evidence with appropriate citations to support your treatment choice(s) in working with your client. Be sure to discuss the effectiveness and limitations in working with this particular client, including this client’s background, using the above treatment plans.

Camilo’s treatment for APD should follow Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
(CBT). It will assist him with his feelings of sadness and feeling down (depressive synptoms) and assist Camilo in understanding the role he plays in creating his
problems and how his distorted perceptions prevent him from seeing himself

how others perceive him. According to the vignette Camilo has a tendency to blame others which is viewed in how he feels his guardians are liable for his lack of sleep and most of his problems. Research suggests that individuals with APD lack motivation to improve and poor self-observers which is also see in Camilo’s behavior. Gacano, eta!., 2001 research concluded that CBT has been
reasonably successful in reducing recidivism in repetitive and violent offenders.
As his therapist it is important that I am aware of my own feelings and

:remain vigilant to prevent my emotional responses (transference) from interrupting Camilo’s therapy process. As well as be mindful that Camilo’s tendencies and behaviors may render him difficult to work with and yet, present an attitude of acceptance towards him.
Since it has been documented that Camilo is rather hyperactive, impulsive, easily agitated and aggressive medication may be needed should these behaviors continue to spiral out of control, but being that there is no
specific approved medication then I would have to research medications which
address his symptoms. Lithium Carbonate has been found to reduce anger,

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
threatening behavior and combativeness, fighting and temper outbursts-
common problems for many antisocial (Black, 2006). The medication may also

help with other disorders that coexist with APD (i.e depression and ADHD) which can assist in reduction in his antisocial behavior; should medication be prescribed it is important to monitor Camilo’s intake to ensure that if the medication is addictive (i.e. stimulants- ADHD meds) that by attempting to reduce other symptoms, his treatment creates additional treatment needs. If it is confirmed that Camilo’s APD is comorbid with Bipolar Disorder the Lithium Carbonate will assist in stabilizing his mood (Black, 2006).
Lastly, Camilo’s treatment should incorporate family counseling. By including his family into the process may assist Camilo in realizing how his behaviors/disorder also affects his family. Family therapy could also help Camilo address why he has trouble with attachment and address the issues within in his family.

Interpersonal Effectiveness

A. What diversity factors, cultural considerations, or other demographic variables pertaining to this client would you take into account in rendering diagnoses, choosing assessment measures, forming case conceptualizations, and designing the treatment plan? Be sure to discuss cultural/ diversity factors that could apply even if they are not explicitly mentioned in the vignette.

Regardless of how unbiased one may try to appear we all have are various biases and beliefs; and many times they remain dormant until challenged and within this field it is possibly more likely that our personal biases may be able to come to the forefront. As well it is also important to be mindful the impact
culture can have on diagnosing and treatment of individuals. Therefore it is

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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam Ill
important for each examiner to adhere to the Guidelines on Multicultural

Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change set by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as means to become more multi- culturally sound and recognize the misconceptions and biases which occur within research and diagnosis amongst other groups; as well as to make sure that the assessments are cross-culturally corresponding.
Cultural and diversity factors can play a major role in developing a suitable treatment plan and diagnosing. Certain behaviors in which I may conclude as maladaptive may be culturally a social practice or viewed a normative within a different group and not be actual symptomatic signs of diagnostic symptoms. However should I neglect to adhere to the guidelines set by the APA my lack of understanding could result in my client’s data being
misconstrued and/or the client misdiagnosed. Therefore it is important for me to gather all pertinent cultural and religious belief based information in order to establish a suitable understanding or acquire the assistance of a
colleague/ expert in order to minimize the cultural barriers, in order to properly diagnose and establish an adequate treatment plan.
Other considerations to include which could impact diagnosing and

treatment planning are language barriers. If Camilo and I are unable to properly communicate and understand each other then I am unable to obtain the information needed to adequately assess him. For example, during an assessment language barriers could result in us having different understandings as to the meanings of certain wording or phrases. Within various cultures not all language within an assessment may come across as conceptually equivalent.
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
Also within various cultures the roles of women and men differ from our Westernized perception of gender roles. Example being, within some cultures regardless if there is Domestic Violence or abuse within the family those issues stay within the family and is viewed as culturally acceptable, whereas by law within the U .S. states these actions are viewed as unacceptable within society and are punishable crimes.
Additional lack of cultural understanding of my client could also establish issues/ conflicts of interest as it relates to my personal beliefs, biases and attitude towards various behaviors or topics. Therefore it is important to for me to gather as much information as I can as well as do a self-check to determine if whether or not I am suitable to continue on with this client in order to avoid/minimize transference and countertransference.

B. Your writing, use of citations, ability to form a logical argument, and proper APA
Style, including the use of paraphrasing, will be evaluated as a measure of your interpersonal effectiveness. No response is required for “B”.
Leadership, Consultation, and Ethical

A. Describe how you would work within a professional treatment team to consult, triage, and treat this case. Include a description of the various members of the professional team with whom you would be likely to interact. Additionally, explain the roles and responsibilities of each member of the treatment team.
I will work with Camilo’s defense attorney by reviewing Camilo’s records and compiling a comprehensive Psychological Evaluation that will address his
competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility, as well as note any mental

disorders and approaches to treatment. l e APA Code of Ethics states (When indicated and professionally appropriate, psychologist cooperate with other
professionals in order serve their clients/patients effectively and appropriately.”
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
Therefore, it is my duty to ensure that no pertinent information is overlooked in his defense.
Other members of the team that I will have to work with are physicians,

psychiatrist and toxicologist. The toxicologist will assist in running test to determine the presence of substances and their effects on the mind and body. Physicians will be able to conduct a physical and establish if whether or not Camilo behaviors are the result of any medical conditions (i.e. Thyroid issues). The psychiatrist’s role will be to administer and monitor Camilo’s need for medication in order to control/reduce his symptoms of aggression, impulsivity, depression, etc. As well it will also be important to get a signed release from
Camilo in order to request the reports of previous psychiatrist and/ or physicians

in order to review their reports.
According to the APA Ethical Principals section 9.01(a) “psychologist

should base the opinions contained in their recommendations, reports, and diagnostic or evaluative statements, including forensic testimony, on information and techniques sufficient to substantiate their finding” (2002). Therefore regardless of the outcome the retaining attorney is trying to achieve I
am to only testify to the facts of my findings and not a “hired gun” (offering

testimony for pay to suit in favor of the attorney) .

B. What are the ethical and legal dilemmas this vignette introduced? What would
be your immediate steps and why? Please be specific and make sure that you describe your process of ethical decision making and the solutions/consequences to which this process might lead. Your discussion should be informed by the American Psychological Association’s Ethics Code as
well as the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists.


Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
As previously stated ethically I am required to assist and cooperate with other officials in order to appropriately service my patient; however working under the requirements of the law can cause me to infringe upon my ethical obligationsjresponsibilities enforced by the APA.
In the above section I made reference to be a “hired gun” in which the

attorney may request/pay for my testimony to veer from my findings and report only the results that are within favor of his case. Ethically this creates conflict for me in that I will be abandoning my ethical duties and risk possible ramification as paying fines, being suspended or even losing my license. Therefore it would be in my best interest to adhere to my ethical obligation and report only on the results of my findings.
Another example is that of confidentiality, what is said between Camilo and myself isn’t to be voluntarily repeated and is confidential, unless a signed release is au thorized by m client; but by law Camilo’s records can be subpoenaed. APA Ethical Standard 4.05 (2002) reads, “(a) Psychologists may disclose confidential information with the appropriate consent of the organizational client, the individual client/patient, or another legally authorized person on behalf ofthe client/patient unless prohibited by law.
(b) Psychologists disclose confidential information without the consent of the individual only as mandated by law, or where permitted by law for a valid purpose such as to ( 1) provide needed professional services; (2) obtain appropriate professional consultations; (3) protect the client/patient, psychologist, or others from harm; or (4) obtain payment for services from a client/patient, in which instance disclosure is limited to the minimum that is
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Argosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
necessary to achieve the purpose.” Therefore, if I am directed by the judge or rule of law I will be required to breach confidentiality and testify to Camilo’s history, my notes and I will nolonger by bound by ethical responsibility of breach of

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Bartol, Anne, M.; Bartol, Curt, R. (2008). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach
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Eysenck, H. J., and Gudjonsson, G. H. (1989). The causes and cures of criminality.
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HaTEur, T. J., Hare, R. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1989). ”Tw o-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment imQ}ications”. Psychological Assessment 1 (1): 6-17.

Dgosy University MA Forensic Comprehensive Exam
Hodgins, S.; Cote, G.; and Toupin, J. Major mental disorders and crime: An etiologic hypothesis. In: Cooke, D.; Forth, A.; and Hare, R.D., eds. Psychopathy: Theory, f?esearch and Implications for Society . Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic,
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!Hill ,_Q.24

Forensic Comp Exam 2014doc.doc






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